Prisons, Jails, and the Corrections System: Overview

101. Detention Until Trial

"In the U.S., when a person is charged with an offense they may be detained in jail until their trial or they may be released to await their trial in the community through a variety of mechanisms which will be discussed later. In many other nations, people are said to be “remanded,” which is a summons to appear before a judge at a later date. If they are not released pretrial they can be “remanded to custody” until their court proceeding; if they are convicted, they can be remanded to custody prior to sentencing or during an appeal process."

Petteruti, Amanda and Fenster, Jason, "Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations, Justice Policy Institute (Washington, DC: April 2011), p. 16.
http://www.justicepolicy.org/u...

102. Prisons & Jails - 6-14-12

(Jails) "Jails, which are also primarily local in nature, detain not only persons arrested for local offenses, but also virtually all persons charged and awaiting trial under State law. Local jails may also house Federal detainees and State 'prison-ready' inmates — convicted and sentenced persons whose transfer to State prison is delayed by overcrowding or other reasons. In most such cases, State or Federal governments pay fees to the local communities that house these prisoners."

"Use and Management of Criminal History Record Information: A Comprehensive Report, Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, December 2001), p. 8.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

103. Pretrial Detention

"Pretrial detention is associated with a higher likelihood of both being found guilty35 and receiving a sentence of incarceration over probation,36 thus forcing a person further into the criminal justice system. In the United States, this is particularly important because of the sheer numbers: with 20 percent of the total number of people incarcerated being pretrial, that means nearly 500,000 people each year are more likely to be found guilty and sentenced to incarceration, thus significantly adding to the total number of people in prison."

Petteruti, Amanda and Fenster, Jason, "Finding Direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options by Considering Policies of Other Nations, Justice Policy Institute (Washington, DC: April 2011) pp. 15-17.
http://www.justicepolicy.org/u...

104. Parole

Parole is a period of conditional supervised release in the community following a prison term. It includes parolees released through discretionary or mandatory supervised release from prison, those released through other types of post-custody conditional supervision, and those sentenced to a term of supervised release.”

Glaze, Lauren E., and Bonczar, Thomas P., "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, November 2011), NCJ 236019, p. 2.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

105. Prisons - 12-31-11

(Probation)Probation is a court-ordered period of correctional supervision in the community, generally as an alternative to incarceration. In some cases, probation can be a combined sentence of incarceration followed by a period of community supervision.”

Glaze, Lauren E., and Bonczar, Thomas P., "Probation and Parole in the United States, 2010," Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, November 2011), NCJ 236019, p. 2.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

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