Prisons, Jails, and the Corrections System: Overview

Related Chapters:
Drugs and Prison
Race and Prison
Crime, Arrests and Law Enforcement

Page last updated July 16, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor/Senior Policy Analyst.

1. Number of People Serving Time in State and Federal Prisons in the US

"At year-end 2018, an estimated 1,465,200 prisoners were under state or federal jurisdiction. This was a decrease of more than 9% from 2009, when the U.S. prison population peaked at 1,615,500, and a decrease of 2% from the 1,489,200 prisoners in 2017 (table 1). State prisoners made up 88% of the total U.S. prison population at year-end 2018 and accounted for 87% of the decline in the total prison population from year-end 2017. Te number of federal prisoners fell by 3,200, from 183,100 in 2017 to 179,900 in 2018. This was the sixth consecutive year that the federal prison population declined. Federal prisoners accounted for
13% of the decline in the total prisoner population from 2017 to 2018 (not shown in tables).

"Thirty-two states showed decreases in their year-end prison populations from 2017 to 2018 (table 2). Four states had declines of at least 2,000 prisoners during that period: New York (down 2,800), Tennessee (down 2,700), California (down 2,400), and Missouri (down 2,200). Twelve states showed increases from 2017 to 2018, with the largest increases in Texas (up 1,100), Indiana (up 850), and Colorado (up 430)."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2018. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2020, NCJ253516.
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2. Imprisonment Rates In the US By Gender and Race

"There were 431 prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison per 100,000 U.S. residents at year-end 2018, a decrease from 441 per 100,000 at year-end 2017 (table 5). The state imprisonment rate was 381 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages, and the federal rate was 50 per 100,000.

"Among U.S. residents age 18 or older, there were 555 prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison per 100,000 adult U.S. residents as of December 31, 2018 (table 6). More than 1% of adult males living in the U.S. were serving a prison sentence of more than one year (1,055 per 100,000), representing a decrease of 2.7% from year-end 2017 (1,084 per 100,000). At year-end 2018, the imprisonment rate for adult females was 80 per 100,000 female U.S. residents age 18 or older.

"From 2017 to 2018, the imprisonment rate for Hispanic adults declined 3.7%, from 823 per 100,000 Hispanic U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2017 to 792 per 100,000 in 2018. The imprisonment rate for black adults declined 3.2%, from 1,549 per 100,000 black adult residents at year-end 2017 to 1,500 per
100,000 at year-end 2018. Meanwhile, the imprisonment rate for white adults decreased 1.4%, from 272 per 100,000 white adult residents in 2017 to 268 per 100,000 in 2018.

"From year-end 2008 to year-end 2018, the imprisonment rate declined 15.2% for white adults (from 316 to 268 per 100,000) and 31.7% for black adults (from 2,196 to 1,501 per 100,000). Te number of sentenced Hispanic prisoners remained relatively steady between 2008 and 2018, while the number of Hispanic adult residents increased 33%. As a result, the imprisonment rate for Hispanics declined 25.1% over the decade."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2018. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2020, NCJ253516.
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3. Number of People Serving Time in Jails in the US

"County and city jails in the United States held 738,400 inmates at midyear 2018 (table 1), a decline of 6% from 785,500 inmates held in 2008. The midyear population remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2018. At midyear 2018, about one-third of jail inmates (248,500) were sentenced or awaiting sentencing on a conviction, while about two-thirds (490,000) were awaiting court action on a current charge or were held for other reasons.

"Over the 10-year period from 2008 to 2018, the rate of incarceration in local jails dropped by 12%, from 258 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents to 226 per 100,000 (fgure 1). During this period, the jail incarceration rate increased by 12% for whites and declined by about 30% for blacks (28%) and Hispanics (33%)."

Zhen Zeng, PhD. Jail Inmates in 2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Dept. of Justice. March 2020. NCJ253044.
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4. Number of Adults Under Correctional Supervision in the US

"The decline in the U.S. correctional population from January 1, 2016 (6,676,200 persons), to December 31, 2016 (6,613,500), continued a downward trend that began in 2008 (table 1). Persons supervised in the community on either probation (3,673,100 persons) or parole (874,800) continued to account for the majority of the U.S. correctional population at year-end 2016. Nearly 7 in 10 persons under correctional supervision were supervised in the community (4,537,100) on December 31, 2016, and 3 in 10 (2,162,400) were incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails.1

"The 0.9% decrease in the correctional population from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016, was due to a 1.1% decline in the number of persons supervised in the community and a 0.5% decline in the incarcerated population. The decrease in the community supervision population during 2016 accounted for nearly 80% of the decline in the total correctional population. The number of persons under supervision in the community decreased by 49,800 from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016, to 4,537,100. During 2016, the probation population decreased by 1.4%, while the parole population increased by 0.5%, resulting in an overall decline in the community supervision population. From 2007 to 2016, the community supervision population decreased by an annual average of 1.3%. At year-end 2016, the number of persons under community supervision was the lowest observed since 1999 (4,485,300) (not shown).

"On December 31, 2016, an estimated 2,162,400 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails—10,400 fewer persons than in 2015. By year-end 2016, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level observed since 2004 (2,136,600) (not shown).

"During 2016, the prison population decreased 1.4%, while the jail population remained relatively stable. The U.S. prison population on December 31, 2016 (1,505,400), was at its lowest level since 2004 (1,497,100) (not shown). The total incarcerated population in 2016 was 0.5% lower than in 2015."

Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018), NCJ250374, pp. 2-3.
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5. Total Number of Adults Incarcerated in US Prisons and Jails

"On December 31, 2016, an estimated 2,162,400 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails—10,400 fewer persons than in 2015. By year-end 2016, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level observed since 2004 (2,136,600) (not shown).
"During 2016, the prison population decreased 1.4%, while the jail population remained relatively stable. The U.S. prison population on December 31, 2016 (1,505,400), was at its lowest level since 2004 (1,497,100) (not shown). The total incarcerated population in 2016 was 0.5% lower than in 2015."

Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018), NCJ250374, p. 3.
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6. Correctional Supervision Rate for Adults in the US

"After peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2007, the correctional supervision rate trended downward, falling to a low of 2,640 per 100,000 by year-end 2016 (table 4). The percentage of adults supervised by U.S. correctional system was lower in 2016 than at any time since 1993 (2,550 per 100,000) (not shown). Both the change in the correctional population and change in the U.S population had an impact on the rate. More than half (53%) of the decrease in the correctional supervision rate from 2007 to 2016 was attributed to the decrease in the number of offenders under correctional supervision (not shown). The remaining 47% resulted from the increase in the U.S. resident population age 18 or older from 2007 to 2015, which is used to calculate the rates. By year-end 2016, the correctional supervision rate fell to the lowest rate since 1993 (2,550 per 100,000), when almost 1.9 million fewer persons were supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems (not shown).

"On December 31, 2016, 1,810 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents were on probation or parole. This was the same rate as in 1992 when the community supervision population was smaller by about 1.1 million offenders and the U.S. resident population was smaller by about 63 million people (not shown). The community corrections rate has declined for nine consecutive years since reaching a high in 2007 (2,240 per 100,000).

"In 2016, 860 persons per 100,000 U.S. adult residents were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails. The incarceration rate has declined since 2009 (980 per 100,000) after reaching a high of 1,000 per 100,000 U.S. adult residents from 2006 to 2008. The incarceration rate had declined since 2009 and is currently at its lowest rate since 1996 (830 per 100,000) (not shown)."

Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018), NCJ250374, p. 4.
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7. Total Number of Adults Supervised by the US Correctional System, 2000, 2005, and 2010-2015

In 2015, a total of 6,741,400 adults were under the supervision of the US adult correctional system. Of those, 4,650,900 were under community supervision, of which 3,789,800 were on probation and 870,500 were on parole. A total of 2,173,800 adults were incarcerated in 2015, of whom 728,800 were in jails and 1,526,800 were in prisons.

Click here for the complete data table.

Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2016), NCJ250374, Table 1, p. 2.
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Danielle Kaeble, Lauren Glaze, Anastasios Tsoutis, and Todd Minton, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2014," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2015, Revised January 21, 2016), NCJ249513, Table 1, p. 2.
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Lauren E. Glaze and Danielle Kaeble, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2013" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2014), NCJ248479, Table 1, p. 2.
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8. Estimated rate of persons supervised by US adult correctional systems, by correctional status, 2000 and 2005–2015

In 2015, the US adult correctional system had under its supervision one in every 37 US adults, which is a rate of 2,710 people under supervision per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older. More broadly, that's a rate of 2,090 per 100,000 US residents of all ages.
The rate for the population on community supervision, i.e. probation and parole, in 2015 was 1,870 per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older, and 1,440 per 100,000 US residents of all ages.
The rate for the incarcerated population, in jails and prisons, in 2015 was 870 per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older, and 670 per 100,000 US residents of all ages.

Click this link to open the complete data table.

Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2016), NCJ250374, Table 4, p. 4.
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9. Number of people held in US State or Federal Prisons or in Local Jails, by Type of Facility, 2000 and 2007-2016

In 2016, there were 2,157,800 people behind bars in the US. This includes state and federal prisons as well as local and county jails. Of these, 188,300 people were federal prisoners, and 1,288,800 were state prisoners, and local jails held a total of 740,700 people. The incarceration rate in 2016 was 670 people per 100,000 US residents of all ages. The adult incarceration rate in 2016 was 870 people per 100,000 US residents aged 18 or older.

Click here for the complete data table for 2000 and 2007-2016.

Danielle Kaeble and Mary Cowhig, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018), NCJ250374, p. 3.
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10. US Imprisonment Rates by Race

"There were 431 prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison per 100,000 U.S. residents at year-end 2018, a decrease from 441 per 100,000 at year-end 2017 (table 5). Te state imprisonment rate was 381 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages, and the federal rate was 50 per 100,000.

"Among U.S. residents age 18 or older, there were 555 prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison per 100,000 adult U.S. residents as of December 31, 2018 (table 6). More than 1% of adult males living in the U.S. were serving a prison sentence of more than one year (1,055 per 100,000), representing a decrease of 2.7% from year-end 2017 (1,084 per 100,000). At year-end 2018, the imprisonment rate for adult females was 80 per 100,000 female U.S. residents age 18 or older.

"From 2017 to 2018, the imprisonment rate for Hispanic adults declined 3.7%, from 823 per 100,000 Hispanic U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2017 to 792 per 100,000 in 2018. The imprisonment rate for black adults declined 3.2%, from 1,549 per 100,000 black adult residents at year-end 2017 to 1,500 per 100,000 at year-end 2018. Meanwhile, the imprisonment rate for white adults decreased 1.4%, from 272 per 100,000 white adult residents in 2017 to 268 per 100,000 in 2018.

"From year-end 2008 to year-end 2018, the imprisonment rate declined 15.2% for white adults (from 316 to 268 per 100,000) and 31.7% for black adults (from 2,196 to 1,501 per 100,000). Te number of sentenced Hispanic prisoners remained relatively steady between 2008 and 2018, while the number of Hispanic adult residents increased 33%. As a result, the imprisonment rate for Hispanics declined 25.1% over the decade."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2018. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2020, NCJ253516.
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11. Jail Inmate Population in the US by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

City and county jails in the US held 738,400 people at on June 29, 2018. ("Rates are based on the number of inmates held on the last weekday in June.")

Demographics on that date are as follows:
623,400 male, 115,100 female.
Juveniles: 3,700 held as adults, 600 held as juveniles.
Racial demographics were as follows:
White: 368,500
Black: 242,300
Latinx: 109,300
American Indian/Alaska native: 9,700
Asian/native Hawaiian/other Pacific islander: 4,800
"Other," including two or more races: 2,100

Only 248,500 people confined to a local jail had been convicted of any crimes and had either already been sentenced or were awaiting sentencing. The remaining 490,000 people confined to local jails were unconvicted and awaiting court action on a current charge.

"An estimated 226 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents were incarcerated nationwide at midyear 2018. Blacks were jailed at a rate of 592 per 100,000 black U.S. residents (table 2). American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) had a jail incarceration rate of 401 per 100,000 AIAN U.S. residents. Whites (187 per 100,000 white U.S. residents) and Hispanics (182 per 100,000 Hispanic U.S. residents) were jailed at similar rates.

"During the past decade, the jail incarceration rate increased for whites and declined for blacks and Hispanics. From 2008 to 2018, the rate grew from 167 to 187 per 100,000 for whites (up 12%), fell from 825 to 592 per 100,000 for blacks (down 28%), and fell from 274 to 182 per 100,000 for Hispanics (down 34%).
In 2018, blacks were jailed at their lowest rate since 1990. (See appendix table 2.)

"The male incarceration rate fell 14% between 2005 and 2018, from 448 to 387 male inmates per 100,000 male U.S. residents. During that period, the rate for females grew 10%, from 63 to 69 female inmates per 100,000 female U.S. residents.

"The black jail population dropped by 21% from 2008 to 2018

"From 2008 to 2018, the total jail population declined by 6% (47,100 inmates) (table 3). This was largely due to a 21% decrease in black inmates, which was partially offset by an 11% increase in white inmates. During this period, the overall Hispanic population (up 23%) and Asian population (up 40%) in the U.S. grew, while the number of Hispanic jail inmates decreased by 15% and the number of Asian jail inmates stayed about the same. (See appendix table 1 for population figures.)"

Zhen Zeng, PhD. Jail Inmates in 2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Dept. of Justice. March 2020. NCJ253044.
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12. Rates of Adult Incarceration and Community Supervision in the US

"After peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents in 2007, the correctional supervision rate trended downward, falling to a low of 2,710 per 100,000 by yearend 2015 (table 4). The drop in the correctional supervision rate was attributed equally to the decline in the U.S. correctional population and the increase in the U.S. adult resident population. By yearend 2015, the correctional supervision rate fell to the lowest rate since 1994 (2,650 per 100,000), when about 1.6 million fewer persons were supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems (not shown).
"There were 1,870 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents on either probation or parole at yearend 2015. This represented the lowest rate of offenders under community supervision since 1993 (1,830 per 100,000), when the population was smaller by about 1.1 million offenders (not shown). The community supervision rate reached a high in 2007 (2,240 per 100,000) before declining each year through 2015.
"At yearend 2015, 870 persons per 100,000 U.S. adult residents were under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails. The incarceration rate has been declining since 2009 (980 per 100,000). By yearend 2015, the incarceration rate dropped to the same rate as 1997 (870 per 100,000)."

Danielle Kaeble and Lauren Glaze, "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015," (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2016), NCJ250374, p. 4.
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13. State and Federal Prison Populations in the US by Race, Gender, and Latinx Ethnicity

"Demographic characteristics among sentenced prisoners

"• At year-end 2018, an estimated 6% of sentenced white males in state and federal prisons were ages 18 to 24, compared to 12% of black and 10% of Hispanic male prisoners (table 9).

"• Three percent of male prisoners and 1.5% of female prisoners sentenced to more than one year in state or federal prison were age 65 or older at year-end 2018.

"• Seventeen percent of white males sentenced to more than one year in prison were age 55 or older as of year-end 2018, compared to 11% of black and 9% of Hispanic male prisoners.

"• The age group most likely to be imprisoned is those in their 30s (over 1,000 men or women imprisoned per 100,000 U.S. residents).

"• Together, state and federal correctional authorities held more than 1% of all male U.S. residents ages 20 to 54 (more than 1,000 per 100,000 residents) at year-end 2018 (table 10).

"• In 2018, the imprisonment rate of black residents (1,134 sentenced black prisoners per 100,000 black residents) was the lowest since 1989 (1,050 per 100,000).

"• The imprisonment rate for black females (88 per 100,000 black female residents) was 1.8 times as high as for white females (49 per 100,000 white female residents), while the imprisonment rate for black males (2,272 per 100,000 black male residents) was 5.8 times as high as for white males (392 per 100,000 white male residents).

"• Black males ages 18 to 19 were 12.7 times as likely to be imprisoned as white males of the same ages (figure 2), the highest black-to-white racial disparity of any age group in 2018.

"• Hispanic males ages 18 to 19 were 3.3 times as likely as white males of the same ages to be imprisoned at year-end 2018.

"• In 2018, the disparities in imprisonment rates between sentenced black and white females and between sentenced Hispanic and white females were lowest for those ages 25 to 49 (figure 3)."

E. Ann Carson, PhD. Prisoners In 2018. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2020, NCJ253516.
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14. Decline in State & Federal Prisoners 2011-2012

"The number of prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year in federal or state prison, representing 96% of the overall prison population, decreased by 1.7% in 2012 (table 5). The number of sentenced federal prisoners declined slightly (down 0.2%) in 2012, while the total federal population increased. The increase was driven primarily by population increases among inmates without sentences or with sentences of 1 year or less (1,929, not shown in table). The number of sentenced state prisoners also declined, with 25,987 (down 1.9%) fewer sentenced inmates in 2012 than in 2011. California accounted for 57% of this decline. Overall, the number of sentenced male inmates in state or federal prison declined by 1.7% (down 24,109) from 2011 to 2012, and the number of sentenced female inmates decreased by 2.3% (down 2,354) during the same period.
"Among the reporting jurisdictions, 25 out of the 47 states and the federal prison system showed declines in their sentenced prison population (table 6). Five states had decreases of more than 10% in their sentenced female prison population, while five others showed increases among females of more than 10% from 2011 to 2012. However, the majority of these states had a small overall prison population."

Carson, E. Ann, and Golinelli, Daniela, "Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2013), NCJ242467, p. 6.
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15. Total Number of Adults In State and Federal Prisons In The US At Year-End 2015

"At yearend 2015, the United States had an estimated 1,526,800 prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities. This was the smallest U.S. prison population since 2005 (1,525,900 prisoners). The prison population decreased by more than 2% from the number of prisoners held in December 2014 (figure 1). This was the largest decline in the number of persons under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities since 1978 (figure 2).
"The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) had jurisdiction over 196,500 prisoners at yearend 2015, a decrease of 14,100 prisoners from yearend 2014. This was the third consecutive year that the federal prison population declined and the lowest number of federal prisoners since 2006 (193,000). This decrease in federal prisoners accounted for 40% of the total change in the U.S. prison population."

E. Ann Carson, PhD, and Elizabeth Anderson. Prisoners In 2015. Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016, NCJ250229, p. 1.
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16. Growth of Jails in the US 2000-2016

US jails held, as confined inmates, 621,149 people in 2000; 767,434 people in 2009; 748,728 people in 2010; 735,601 people in 2011; 744,524 people in 2012; 731,208 people in 2013; 744,592 people in 2014; 727,400 people in 2015; and 740,700 people in 2016.
The above are mid-year counts of inmates confined by local jails on the last weekday of June for each year. Counts were estimated from the Annual Survey of Jails.

On December 31, 2015, jails in the US held 692,500 confined inmates, and on December 31, 2016, jails in the US held 704,500 confined inmates. The Bureau of Justice Statistics warns against comparison of mid-year and end-of-year inmate counts "because the jail population goes through seasonal change, typically with fewer inmates at year-end than at midyear."

Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2016," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Feb. 2018), NCJ251210, p. 2, Table 1, and p. 8, Appendix Table 1.
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Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, "Jail Inmates in 2015," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, December 2016), NCJ250394, Table 1, p. 3.
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17. Jail Incarceration Rate in the US at Year-End 2016, by Age and Race/Ethnicity

"At year-end 2016, the jail incarceration rate was 217 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, which was similar to the rate of 215 per 100,000 at year-end 2015 (table 2). The incarceration rate for adults age 18 or older was 280 per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older at year-end 2016. Males (377 per 100,000 male U.S. residents) were incarcerated at a rate six times that of females (62 per 100,000 female U.S. residents).
"Non-Hispanic blacks (599 per 100,000 black U.S. residents) had the highest jail incarceration rate at year-end 2016, followed by American Indian or Alaska Natives (359 per 100,000 AIAN residents). Non-Hispanic whites (171 per 100,000 white residents) and Hispanics (185 per 100,000 Hispanic residents) were incarcerated at a similar rate at year-end 2016. Among non-Hispanics in 2016, blacks were incarcerated in jail at a rate 3.5 times that of whites, down from 5.6 times the rate in 2000."

Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2016," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Feb. 2018), NCJ251210, p. 3.
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18. Number of People Confined in US Jails, 2016, by Conviction Status

"In 2016, an estimated 65% of all jail inmates were awaiting court action on a current charge. The remaining 35% were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. Seventy percent of inmates were held in jail for felony charges."

Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2016," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Feb. 2018), NCJ251210, p. 4.
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19. More Than 60 Percent of People Held in US Jails Have Not Been Convicted

"Since 2005, more than 60% of all jail inmates were awaiting court action on a current charge. About 4 in 10 inmates were sentenced offenders or convicted offenders awaiting sentencing. The growth in the overall jail inmate population since 2000 was due to the increase in the unconvicted population. Regardless of conviction status, about 68% of jail inmates in 2015 were held for a felony offense, and the remaining 32% were held for either misdemeanor (27%) or other offenses (5%) (not shown)."

Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2015," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Dec. 2016), NCJ250394, p. 4.
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20. Number of People in Jails in the US, 2015, by Gender

"The juvenile population (those age 17 or younger) in local jails continued to decline in 2015, to fewer than 4,000 inmates (tables 3 and 4). This was down from a peak of about 7,600 juveniles in 2010. Since 2000, at least 8 in 10 juveniles held in local jails were on trial or awaiting trial in adult court.
"While males accounted for at least 85% of the jail population each year since 2000, the female jail population grew from 11% of the total jail population in 2000 to more than 14% in 2013 and 2014. As a result, the female jail incarceration rate increased from about 50 per 100,000 female U.S. residents in 2000 to nearly 70 per 100,000 in 2014. The male incarceration rate remained relatively stable since 2000 (about 400 per 100,000 male U.S. residents) (not shown)."

Todd D. Minton and Zhen Zeng, PhD, "Jail Inmates in 2015," Bureau of Justice Statistics (Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Dec. 2016), NCJ250394, p. 4.
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