Crime, Arrests, and Law Enforcement

Related Chapters:

Subsection Links:

Data Tables:

Police encounters don't have to end in an arrest, or worse. The organization Flex Your Rights has put together a comprehensive guide for citizens on how to properly handle encounters with law enforcement, preserving both personal and public safety as well as one's civil rights. Learn more at their website, FlexYourRights.org.

Overview of Federal Laws Providing for the Death Penalty by the Death Penalty Information Center.

1. Total Annual Drug Arrests In The United States By Offense Type

2018: Of the estimated 1,654,282 drug law violations in the US in 2018, 86.4% (1,429,300) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 13.6% (224,982) were for sale or manufacture of a drug.

2017: Of the estimated 1,632,921 drug law violations in the US in 2017, 85.4% (1,394,515) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 14.6% (238,404) were for sale or manufacture of a drug.

2015: Of the estimated 1,488,707 arrests for drug law violations in the US in 2015, 83.9% (1,249,025) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 16.1% (239,682) were for sale or manufacture of a drug.

2010: Of the estimated 1,638,846 arrests for drug law violations in the US in 2010, 81.9% (1,342,215) were for possession of a controlled substance. Only 18.1% (296,631) were for sale or manufacture of a drug.

Click here to open full table showing drug arrest data for 2010-2017.

Click here to open table displaying Total Annual Arrests in the US by Year and Type of Offense, 1996-2017.

"Crime in the United States 2018 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2019), p. 2, and Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Crime in the United States 2017 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2018), p. 1, and Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Crime in the United States 2015 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2016), p. 1, and Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Crime in the United States 2010," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2011), Table 29.
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cj...
Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations, 2010: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cj...

2. Total Annual Arrests in the US by Offense Type in 2018 Compared With 1973

In 1973, there were 328,670 arrests reported by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) for drug law violations, out of a total 9,027,700 arrests nationwide for all offenses. Also that year, authorities reported 380,560 arrests for Part One offense violent crimes and 1,448,700 arrests for Part One offense property offenses.
In 2018, there were an estimated 1,654,282 arrests for drug law violations out of an estimated total of 10,310,960 arrests nationwide for all offenses. Also in 2018, the UCR estimated there were 521,103 arrests for Part One violent crimes and 1,167,296 arrests for Part One offense property crimes.

Click here to open full table showing drug arrest data from 2010-2018

Click here to open table displaying Total Annual Arrests in the US by Year and Type of Offense, 1996-2017

Important note: According to the UCR, "Violent crimes are offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Property crimes are offenses of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson."
Crimes that are not in those categories are reported separately and are not included in the index of violent and property crimes. For example, the UCR reports that in 2018 there were an estimated 1,063,535 arrests in the US for "other assaults."

FBI Uniform Crime Reports 1973 (1973 drug arrest data supplied by the National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
Violent and Property Crime Arrest Datasheet 1970-2003, Bureau of Justice Statistics, accessed Oct. 29, 2012.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/dat...
"Crime in the United States 2018 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2019), p. 2, Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations, and Table 29: Estimated Number of Arrests, United States, 2018
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...

3. Arrests for Drug Offenses in the US in 2018, By Type of Offense and Substance Type

In 2018, the FBI reports there were a total of 1,654,282 arrests for all drug offenses, of which 224,982 were for sale or manufacture of any drug, and 1,429,300 were for possession of any drug.

• Of the 224,982 sale/manufacture arrests in 2018, 72,788 were for heroin, cocaine, and derivatives; 54,591 were for marijuana; 29,777 were for synthetic or manufactured drugs; and 66,171 were for other dangerous nonnarcotic drugs.

• Of the 1,429,300 possession arrests that year, 334,165 were for heroin, cocaine, and derivatives; 608,776 were for marijuana; 77,134 were for synthetic or manufactured drugs; and 413,571 were for other dangerous nonnarcotic drugs.

Click here to open full table showing drug arrest data from 2010-2018.

Click here to open table displaying Total Annual Arrests in the US by Year and Type of Offense, 1996-2017.

"Crime in the United States 2018 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2019), p. 2, Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations, and Table 29: Estimated Number of Arrests, United States, 2018.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...

4. Total Annual Arrests in the US by Type of Offense

In 2018, law enforcement agencies in the US made an estimated 10,310,960 arrests for all offenses, of which 1,654,282 were drug arrests.

Although the intent of a 'War on Drugs' may have been to target drug smugglers and 'King Pins,' of the 1,654,282 arrests for drug law violations in 2018, 86.4% (1,429,300) were for mere possession of a controlled substance. Only 13.6% (224,982) were for the sale or manufacturing of a drug. Further, 40.1% of drug arrests in 2018 were for marijuana offenses -- a total of 663,367. Of those, an estimated 608,776 arrests (36.8% of all drug arrests) were for marijuana possession alone. By contrast in 2000, a total of 734,497 Americans were arrested for marijuana offenses, of which 646,042 (40.9%) were for possession alone.

Click here to open table displaying Total Annual Arrests in the US by Year and Type of Offense, 1996-2017

"Crime in the United States 2018 - Arrests," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2019), p. 2, and Arrest Table: Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Crime in the United States - 2000," FBI Uniform Crime Reports (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2001), p. 216, Tables 29 and 4.1.
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cj...

5. Drug Arrests in the US, 2010, by Age and Gender

"State and local law enforcement agencies made an estimated 1,336,500 arrests for drug possession or use in 2010. Females were 20% of these arrests. The median age in drug possession or use arrests was 26. Eleven percent of drug possession or use arrests in 2010 involved a juvenile, 18% involved persons age 40 or older, and 6% involved persons age 50 or older."

Snyder, Howard N., "Arrests in the United States, 1990-2010" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Oct. 2012), NCJ239423, p. 12.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

6. Drug Arrest Trends in the US 1990-2010

"There were 80% more arrests for drug possession or use in 2010 (1,336,530) than in 1990 (741,600). Between 1990 and its peak in 2006, the arrest rate for drug possession or use increased 75% (figure 37). The arrest rate declined between 2006 and 2010, ending in 2010 at 46% above its 1990 level and at a level similar to those seen between 1997 and 2002."

Snyder, Howard N., "Arrests in the United States, 1990-2010" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Oct. 2012), NCJ239423, p. 12.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

7. Average Police Time It Takes to Make An Arrest for Marijuana Possession

"In our ongoing research about marijuana possession arrests in New York,1, we have found that a basic misdemeanor arrest for marijuana possession in New York City varied from a minimum of two or three hours for one officer, to four or five hours or even longer for multiple officers. During this time the officers returned to the police station with the handcuffed arrestees and booked them; they took photographs and fingerprints, gathered other information and wrote it up. They sent the personal data to be checked against the state's criminal databases and often waited to receive the arrestees' criminal records, if the database searches found any. Arresting officers regularly took suspects to the central booking jail, were interviewed by assistant district attorneys, and appeared in court.

"For a very low and conservative estimate, we used two and a half hours as a minimum average amount of time one officer spends making a marijuana possession arrest. We multiplied 2.5 hours by the number of lowest-level marijuana possession arrests (charged under NYS Penal Law 221.10) for each year since 2002 when Mayor Bloomberg took office.

"The front cover of this report shows a graph with the number of marijuana arrests for each year from 2002 through 2012. In those eleven years the NYPD made a total of 439,056 possession-only arrests. Multiplied by two and a half hours of police time per arrest that equals 1,097,640 hours - or approximately one million hours of police officer time to make 440,000 marijuana arrests. That is the equivalent of having 31 police officers working eight hours a day, 365 days a year, for 11 years, making only marijuana possession arrests."

Harry Levine, Loren Siegel, and Gabriel Sayegh,"One Million Police Hours: Making 440,000 Marijuana Possession Arrests in New York City, 2002-2012," Drug Policy Alliance and Marijuana Arrest Research Project, New York City, NY, March 2013, p. 2.
http://www.drugpolicy.org/site...

8. Race and Ethnicity of Offenders and Victims In Violent Crimes in the US

"During 2012-15, U.S. residents experienced 5.8 million violent victimizations per year (table 1). About 3.7 million of these violent victimizations were committed against white victims.3 Among white victims, a higher percentage of victimizations were committed by white offenders (57%) than offenders of any other race. White victims perceived the offender to be black in 15% of violent victimizations and Hispanic in 11%.4

"Of the 850,720 victimizations committed against black victims, a higher percentage involved black offenders (63%) than offenders of any other race. Black victims perceived the offender to be white in 11% of violent victimizations and Hispanic in nearly 7%.

"Fewer than half (40%) of violent victimizations committed against a Hispanic victim were committed by a Hispanic offender. However, the percentage committed by a Hispanic offender was higher than any racial category. An equal percentage of victimizations committed against a Hispanic victim was committed by a white or black offender (20% each)."

Rachel E. Morgan, PhD, "Race and Hispanic Origin of Victims and Offenders, 2012-15," Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Dept. of Justice, NCJ250747, Oct. 2017, p. 2.
https://bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=p...
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pu...

9. Definition of 'Clearance' in Crime Statistics

"In the UCR Program, a law enforcement agency reports that an offense is cleared by arrest, or solved for crime reporting purposes, when three specific conditions have been met. The three conditions are that at least one person has been:

"• Arrested.
"• Charged with the commission of the offense.
"• Turned over to the court for prosecution (whether following arrest, courtsummons, or police notice).

"In its clearance calculations, the UCR Program counts the number of offenses that are cleared, not the number of persons arrested. The arrest of one person may clear several crimes, and the arrest of many persons may clear only one offense. In addition, some clearances that an agency records in a particular calendar year, such as 2015, may pertain to offenses that occurred in previous years.

"Cleared by exceptional means
"In certain situations, elements beyond law enforcement’s control prevent the agency from arresting and formally charging the offender. When this occurs, the agency can clear the offense exceptionally. Law enforcement agencies must meet the following four conditions in order to clear an offense by exceptional means. The agency must have:

"• Identified the offender.
"• Gathered enough evidence to support an arrest, make a charge, and turn over theoffender to the court for prosecution.
"• Identified the offender’s exact location so that the suspect could be taken intocustody immediately.
"• Encountered a circumstance outside the control of law enforcement thatprohibits the agency from arresting, charging, and prosecuting the offender.

"Examples of exceptional clearances include, but are not limited to, the death of the offender (e.g., suicide or justifiably killed by police or citizen); the victim’s refusal to cooperate with the prosecution after the offender has been identified; or the denial of extradition because the offender committed a crime in another jurisdiction and is being prosecuted for that offense. In the UCR Program, the recovery of property alone does not clear an offense.

"Clearances involving only persons under 18 years of age
"When an offender under the age of 18 is cited to appear in juvenile court or before other juvenile authorities, the UCR Program considers the incident for which the juvenile is being held responsible to be cleared by arrest, even though a physical arrest may not have occurred. When clearances involve both juvenile and adult offenders, those incidents are classified as clearances for crimes committed by adults. Because the clearance percentages for crimes committed by juveniles include only those clearances in which no adults were involved, the figures in this publication should not be used to present a definitive picture of juvenile involvement in crime."

"Crime in the United States 2015 - Offenses Cleared," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, September 2016), pp. 1-2.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...

10. Clearance Rates for Reported Violent and Property Crimes in the US, 1996-2017

According to the FBI's Uniform Crime Report, in 2017, of the 1,247,321 violent crimes reported to police, 45.6 percent were cleared by arrest or exceptional means. Of the 7,694,086 property crime offenses reported to police in 2017, only 17.6 percent were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

In 2000, of the 1,131,923 violent crimes reported to police, 47.5 percent were cleared by arrest or exceptional means. Of the 8,235,013 property offenses in 2000 reported to police, only 16.7 percent were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.

Click here for the complete datatable Clearance Rates for Reported Violent and Property Crimes in the US, 1996-2017.

In the UCR Program, a law enforcement agency reports that an offense is cleared by arrest, or solved for crime reporting purposes, when three specific conditions have been met. The three conditions are that at least one person has been:

  • Arrested.
  • Charged with the commission of the offense.
  • Turned over to the court for prosecution (whether following arrest, courtsummons, or police notice).

"Crime in the United States 2017 - Offenses Cleared," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, September 2018), pp. 2-3.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Crime in the United States 2017 - Property Crime," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, September 2018), p. 1.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Crime in the United States 2017 - Violent Crime," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, September 2018), p. 1.
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
"Offenses Known to Police and Cleared by Arrest," Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics (Albany, NY: The University at Albany, 2013), Table 4.20.2011, last accessed Sept. 17, 2013.
https://web.archive.org/web/20...
https://web.archive.org/web/20...
https://web.archive.org/web/20...

11. Proportion of Reported Criminal Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exception Means in the US

"• In the nation in 2016, 45.6 percent of violent crimes and 18.3 percent of property crimes were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.
"• When considering clearances of violent crimes, 59.4 percent of murder offenses, 53.3 percent of aggravated assault offenses, 40.9 percent of rape offenses (legacy definition), 36.5 percent of rape offenses (revised definition), and 29.6 percent of robbery offenses were cleared. (Please note, the legacy and revised UCR definitions for rape can be accessed in Offense Definitions.)
"• Among property crimes, 20.4 percent of larceny-theft offenses, 13.3 percent of motor vehicle theft offenses, and 13.1 percent of burglary offenses were cleared.
"• In 2016, 20.8 percent of arson offenses were cleared by arrest or exceptional means."

"Crime in the United States 2016 - Offenses Cleared," FBI Uniform Crime Report (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, September 2017), pp. 2-3
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...
https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-t...

12. Arrests for Hard Drugs Have No Impact On Injection Drug Use Rates

"Changes in hard drug arrest rates did not predict changes in IDU population rates. These results are inconsistent with criminal deterrence theory and raise questions about whether arresting people for hard drug use contributes to public health."

Samuel R. Friedman, PhD, et al., "Drug Arrests and Injection Drug Deterrence," American Journal of Public Health, February 2011, Vol. 101, No. 2, p. 347.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm...

13. Impact of Arrests Rates on Injection Drug Use

"Although hard drug arrest rates were not associated with changes in the IDU rate, imprisonment might be. Arrest data may fail to capture incapacitation effects if arrests do not lead to incarceration or if sentences are brief.42 Furthermore, even data on time served may not reflect the perception of punitiveness among the population hypothesized to be deterred by incarceration.43 A study of incarceration and injection among 1603 IDUs, however, found that incarceration was negatively associated with injection cessation.7
"Because high arrest rates move many active IDUs from the community into the penal system, the lack of a negative relationship between arrest rates and IDU prevalence raises the question of why removal of IDUs does not reduce their number. One possible reason is that incarcerated IDUs are replaced by new IDUs. This might result if hard drug arrests or the fear of such arrests promote transitions to injecting among noninjectors.23,25–27 Another possibility is that, in MSAs [Metropolitan Statistical Areas] where hard drug arrests have been decreasing over time, the removal of new arrestees is balanced by the return of previously arrested IDUs from jail or prison. More research is needed on this question.
"Deterrence-based approaches to reducing drug use thus appear not to reduce IDU prevalence. They may harm public health: IDUs in MSAs with higher hard drug arrest rates have been found to have higher HIV prevalence.21 Furthermore, arrests for drug use disrupt the lives of drug users, their families, and their neighbors. High imprisonment rates for African American men have been suggested as a contributing factor to racial disparities in sexually transmitted infections in the United States.44,45 Alternative approaches such as harm reduction, which prevents HIV transmission and increases referrals to treatment, may be a better foundation for policy.46"

Samuel R. Friedman, PhD, et al., "Drug Arrests and Injection Drug Deterrence," American Journal of Public Health, February 2011, Vol. 101, No. 2, p. 348.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm...

14. High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

"The ONDCP Director designates new HIDTAs in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, heads of the National Drug Control Program agencies, and relevant State governors. Funding from HIDTA helps Federal, State, local and tribal law enforcement organizations invest in infrastructure, some operational requirements, and joint initiatives to dismantle and disrupt drug trafficking organizations. Funds are also used for demand reduction or prevention efforts and some limited drug treatment initiatives.
"There are currently 28 HIDTAs which include 17.2 percent of all counties in the United States and its territories and little over 60 percent of the population. HIDTA-designated counties are present in 48 States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia."

Office of National Drug Control Policy Open Government Plan (Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, September 2016), p. 3.
https://obamawhitehouse.archiv...

15. Significant Number of US Citizens with Criminal Records

"According to a 2008 survey of states, there were 92.3 million people with criminal records on file with states, including those individuals fingerprinted for serious misdemeanors and felony arrests. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, 2008 (Oct. 2009), at Table 1. In some states, misdemeanor arrests for less serious crimes do not require fingerprinting, thus this figure is likely an undercount of people with criminal records. To account for individuals who may have records in multiple states and other factors, and to arrive at a conservative national estimate, the 92.3 million figure was reduced by 30 percent (64.6 million). Thus, as a percentage of the U.S. population over the age of 18 (232,458,335 in 2009 according to the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, available at http://www.census.gov/popest/), an estimated 27.8 percent of the U.S. adult population has a criminal record on file with states. This estimate is consistent with a Department of Justice finding that about '30 percent of the Nation’s adult population' has a state rap sheet. U.S. Dept. of Justice Office of the Attorney General, The Attorney General’s Report on Criminal History Background Checks
(June 2006), at 51. The rise in people with criminal records may significantly be attributed to the increased arrests associated with the 'War on Drugs.'"

Rodriguez, Michelle Natividad and Emsellem, Maurice, "65 Million Need Not Apply: The Case for Reforming Criminal Background Checks for Employment," National Employment Law Project (New York, NY: March 2011), p. 27.
http://www.nelp.org/page/-/SCL...

16. Prohibition and Homicide Rates

"The data are quite consistent with the view that Prohibition at the state level inhibited alcohol consumption, and an attempt to explain correlated residuals by including omitted variables revealed that enforcement of Prohibitionist legislation had a significant inhibiting effect as well. Moreover, both hypotheses about the effects of alcohol and Prohibition are supported by the analysis. Despite the fact that alcohol consumption is a positive correlate of homicide (as expected), Prohibition and its enforcement increased the homicide rate."

Jensen, Gary F., "Prohibition, Alcohol, and Murder: Untangling Countervailing Mechanisms," Homicide Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, February 2000), p. 31.
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publi...

17. No Relationship Between Drug Imprisonment Rates and States' Drug Problems

"One primary reason for sentencing an offender to prison is deterrence—conveying the message that losing one’s freedom is not worth whatever one gains from committing a crime. If imprisonment were an effective deterrent to drug use and crime, then, all other things being equal, the extent to which a state sends drug offenders to prison should be correlated with certain drug-related problems in that state. The theory of deterrence would suggest, for instance, that states with higher rates of drug imprisonment would experience lower rates of drug use among their residents.

"To test this, Pew compared state drug imprisonment rates with three important measures of drug problems — self-reported drug use (excluding marijuana), drug arrest, and overdose death — and found no statistically significant relationship between drug imprisonment and these indicators. In other words, higher rates of drug imprisonment did not translate into lower rates of drug use, arrests, or overdose deaths.

"State pairings offer illustrative examples. For instance, Tennessee imprisons drug offenders at more than three times the rate of New Jersey, but the states’ rates of self-reported drug use are virtually the same. (See Figure 3.) Conversely, Indiana and Iowa have nearly identical rates of drug imprisonment, but Indiana ranks 27th among states in self-reported drug use and 18th in overdose deaths compared with 44th and 47th, respectively, for Iowa.

"The results hold even when controlling for standard demographic variables, including the percentage of the population with bachelor’s degrees, the unemployment rate, the percentage of the population that is nonwhite, and median household income."

More Imprisonment Does Not Reduce State Drug Problems: Data show no relationship between prison terms and drug misuse. The Pew Charitable Trusts. March 2018, pp. 5-6.
http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/re...
http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/med...

18. Incarceration Not Effective At Reducing Drug Use Or Related Problems

"Although no amount of policy analysis can resolve disagreements about how much punishment drug offenses deserve, research does make clear that some strategies for reducing drug use and crime are more effective than others and that imprisonment ranks near the bottom of that list. And surveys have found strong public support for changing how states and the federal government respond to drug crimes.

"Putting more drug-law violators behind bars for longer periods of time has generated enormous costs for taxpayers, but it has not yielded a convincing public safety return on those investments. Instead, more imprisonment for drug offenders has meant limited funds are siphoned away from programs, practices, and policies that have been proved to reduce drug use and crime."

More Imprisonment Does Not Reduce State Drug Problems: Data show no relationship between prison terms and drug misuse. The Pew Charitable Trusts. March 2018, p. 11.
http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/re...
http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/med...

19. Arrests by DEA, 2009, by Substance

"The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) arrested 29,896 suspects for drug offenses in 2009, a nearly 10% increase from 27,235 arrests in 2008.
"Suspects arrested for offenses involving cocaine powder and crack cocaine (11,361) accounted for 38% of all suspects arrested by the DEA in 2009 (table 2). Twenty-eight percent of suspects were arrested for offenses involving cocaine powder (8,491), and 10% were arrested for crack cocaine (2,870). Crack cocaine arrests declined by 12% from the 3,254 reported in 2008 (not shown in table). The remaining suspects were arrested for marijuana (7,294), methamphetamine (4,701), and for opiates (2,975)."

Motivans, Mark, "Federal Justice Statistics, 2009" (Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2011), NCJ234184, p. 3.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

20. Officers Employed by DEA, FBI, and BOP

"In 2008, DOJ agencies employed about 40,000 (or 33%) of all full-time federal officers with arrest and firearm authority in the United States. The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) was the largest DOJ employer of federal officers and the second largest employer of federal officers overall. The BOP employed nearly 17,000 correctional officers and other staff who deal directly with inmates, such as correctional counselors and captains, to maintain the security of the federal prison system. This was about 1,600 (or 11%) more officers than in 2004. In September 2008, BOP facilities had about 165,000 inmates in custody, compared to about 153,000 inmates in 2004.
"The second largest DOJ agency in 2008 was the FBI, which employed 12,760 full-time personnel with arrest and firearm authority. This was about 500 (or 4%) more officers than in 2004. Except for 230 FBI police officers, the FBI total consisted of special agents responsible for criminal investigation and enforcement.
"In addition to the BOP and the FBI, three other major law enforcement agencies operated within DOJ during 2008: The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) (4,308 officers in 2008, down 2% from 2004), the U.S. Marshals Service (3,313 officers, up 2%), and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) (2,541 officers, up 7%)."

Reaves, Brian, "Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008" (Washington, DC: USDOJ, Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 2012), NCJ238250, p. 3.
http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub...

Pages