Drug Use Estimates

21. Estimated Prevalence of Current Tobacco Use Among Pregnant Women in the US

"• The annual average rate of past month cigarette use in 2012 and 2013 among women aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant was 15.4 percent (Figure 4.5). The rate of current cigarette use among women aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant was lower than that among women who were not pregnant (24.0 percent). This pattern was also evident among women aged 18 to 25 (21.0 vs. 26.2 percent for pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively) and among women aged 26 to 44 (11.8 vs. 25.4 percent, respectively). Rates of current cigarette use in 2012-2013 among pregnant women aged 15 to 44 were 19.9 percent in the first trimester, 13.4 percent in the second trimester, and 12.8 percent in the third trimester.
"• The annual average rates of current cigarette use among women aged 15 to 44 who were not pregnant decreased from 30.7 percent in 2002-2003 to 24.0 percent in 2012-2013 (Figure 4.5). However, the prevalence of cigarette use among pregnant women in this age range did not change significantly during the same time period (18.0 percent in 2002-2003 and 15.4 percent in 2012-2013)."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 37.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

22. Trends in Prevalence of Current Heroin Use in the US

"The estimate of current heroin use in 2015 among people aged 12 or older was higher than the estimates in most years between 2002 and 2009, but it was similar to the estimates between 2010 and 2014 (Figure 8). However, even when there was a statistically significant difference between the 2015 estimate and prior years, the percentages were approximately the same, except for the estimate in 2014 (0.2 percent). For example, all of these estimates for current heroin use rounded to 0.1 percent. In 2014, the estimate of current heroin use was higher than in all previous years; however, the 2015 estimate does not provide strong support that the increase in 2014 signaled the start of a change in the trend. Future survey years will be useful for monitoring this trend.
"The estimate of past year heroin use in 2015 (0.3 percent) was also higher than the estimates for most years between 2002 and 2008, but it was similar to the estimates between 2009 and 2014 (Figure 9). This shift in heroin use among people aged 12 or older reflects changes in heroin use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, smaller increases in heroin use among young adults aged 18 to 25."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). pp. 10-11. Retrieved from
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

23. Estimated Substance Use In The US By Gender

"• In 2013, as in prior years, the rate of current illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older was higher for males (11.5 percent) than for females (7.3 percent). Males were more likely than females to be current users of several different illicit drugs, including marijuana (9.7 vs. 5.6 percent), cocaine (0.8 vs. 0.4 percent), and hallucinogens (0.7 vs. 0.3 percent).
"• In 2013, the rate of current illicit drug use was higher for males than females aged 12 to 17 (9.6 vs. 8.0 percent). This represents a change from 2012, when the rates of current illicit drug use were similar among males and females aged 12 to 17 (9.6 and 9.5 percent, respectively), and reflects a decrease in the rate of current illicit drug use among females from 2012 to 2013. Likewise, in 2013, the rate of current marijuana use was higher for males than females aged 12 to 17 (7.9 vs. 6.2 percent), which is a change from 2012 when the rates of current marijuana use for males and females were similar (7.5 and 7.0 percent).
"• The rate of current marijuana use among males aged 12 to 17 declined from 9.1 percent in 2002 to 6.9 percent in 2006, then increased between 2006 and 2011 (9.0 percent) (Figure 2.11). The rate decreased from 2011 to 2012 (7.5 percent) and remained stable in 2013 (7.9 percent). Among females aged 12 to 17, the rate of current marijuana use decreased from 7.2 percent in 2002 and 2003 to 6.2 percent in 2013."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 25.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

24. Estimated Prevalence of Marijuana Use in the US

"As noted in the illicit drug use section, an estimated 22.2 million Americans aged 12 or older in 2015 were current users of marijuana (Figure 1). This number of past month marijuana users corresponds to 8.3 percent of the population aged 12 or older (Figure 3). The percentage of people aged 12 or older who were current marijuana users in 2015 was similar to the percentage in 2014, but it was higher than the percentages from 2002 to 2013. This increase in marijuana use among people aged 12 or older reflects the increase in marijuana use by adults aged 26 or older and, to a lesser extent, increases in marijuana use among young adults aged 18 to 25."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Page 7. Retrieved from
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

25. Prevalence of Marijuana Use Among Full-Time Workers in the US

"• An estimated 6.4 percent, or 7.3 million, of full-time workers reported use of marijuana during the past month (Tables 2.2 and 2.3).
"• Adults aged 26 to 34 were only about half as likely as 18- to 25-year-olds to be past month marijuana users (8.0 vs. 15.9 percent). Past month use of marijuana was lower with increasing age (Table 2.2).
"• The prevalence of past month marijuana use was higher for males than females (7.9 vs. 4.3 percent, respectively) (Table 2.2).
"• An estimated 11.0 percent of workers reporting two or more races used marijuana during the past month. This was higher than among non-Hispanic white adults (6.9 percent). Fewer Hispanic adults (4.6 percent) reported past month marijuana use than non-Hispanic white adults who reported two or more races (Table 2.2).
"• Higher educational attainment and higher family income were associated with a lower prevalence of current marijuana use (Table 2.3)."

Larson, S. L., Eyerman, J., Foster, M. S., & Gfroerer, J. C. (2007). Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs (DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4273, Analytic Series A-29). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, pp. 15-16.
http://adaiclearinghouse.org/d...

26. Global Prevalence of Cannabis Use

"Cannabis use has increased globally, particularly in Asia since 2009. Although epidemiological data is not available, experts from the region report a perceived increase in use. The regions with a prevalence of cannabis use that is higher than the global average continue to be West and Central Africa (12.4 per cent), Oceania (essentially Australia and New Zealand, 10.9 per cent), North America (10.7 per cent) and Western and Central Europe (7.6 per cent). Cannabis use in North America and in most parts of Western and Central Europe is considered to be stable or declining."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 1.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

27. Prevalence of Daily Or Almost Daily Marijuana Use in the US

"• In 2013, 5.7 million persons aged 12 or older used marijuana on a daily or almost daily basis in the past 12 months (i.e., on 300 or more days in that period), which was an increase from the 3.1 million daily or almost daily users in 2006 (Figure 2.15). The number of daily or almost daily users of marijuana in 2013 represented 17.4 percent of past year users.
"• In 2013, 8.1 million persons aged 12 or older used marijuana on 20 or more days in the past month, which was an increase from the 5.1 million daily or almost daily past month users in 2005 to 2007 (Figure 2.15). The number of daily or almost daily users in 2013 represented 41.1 percent of past month marijuana users."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 30.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

28. Estimated Prevalence of Current Cocaine Use in the US

"In this report, estimates of the use of cocaine include use of crack cocaine. Estimates also are presented separately for crack use. In 2015, the estimate of about 1.9 million people aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 1) included about 394,000 current users of crack. These numbers correspond to about 0.7 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 7) and 0.1 percent who were current users of crack (Table A.1B in Appendix A). The 2015 estimate for current cocaine use was similar to the estimates in most years between 2007 and 2013, but it was higher than the estimate in 2014. The 2015 estimate of crack use was similar to the estimates in most years from 2008 to 2014. The 2015 estimates of both cocaine and crack use were lower than most of the estimates between 2002 and 2006."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 16-4984, NSDUH Series H-51). Page 9. Retrieved from
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

29. Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013

"• In 2013, there were 601,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used cocaine for the first time within the past 12 months; this averages to approximately 1,600 initiates per day. This estimate was similar to the number in 2008 to 2012 (ranging from 623,000 to 724,000). The annual number of cocaine initiates in 2013 was lower than the estimates from 2002 through 2007 (ranging from 0.9 million to 1.0 million).
"• The number of initiates of crack cocaine ranged from 209,000 to 353,000 in 2002 to 2008 and declined to 95,000 in 2009. The number of initiates of crack cocaine has been similar each year since 2009 (e.g., 58,000 in 2013).
"• In 2013, most (81.9 percent) of the 0.6 million recent cocaine initiates were aged 18 or older when they first used. The average age at first use among recent initiates aged 12 to 49 was 20.4 years. The average age estimates have remained fairly stable since 2002."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 62.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

30. Global Prevalence of Cocaine Use

"Despite these regional fluctuations, the annual prevalence of cocaine use remained largely stable at the global level over the period 1998-2014, fluctuating at between 0.3 and 0.4 per cent of the population aged 15-64. However, as the population has grown, the number of cocaine users has increased, from some 14 million in 1998 to 18.8 million in 2014. Meanwhile, it is likely that there has been a decline in per capita consumption of cocaine, prompted by a decline in the amount of cocaine available for consumption over the period 2007-2014, mainly linked to a drop in cocaine production in the Andean region. In parallel, the number of heavy cocaine users in North America has declined. This points to an overall shrinking of the cocaine market, although the number of (recreational rather than regular) cocaine users in several emerging markets continues to rise."

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2016 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.16.XI.7), pp. 13-14.
http://www.unodc.org/wdr2016/
http://www.unodc.org/doc/wdr20...

31. Global Opioid Use Rates, 2011

"The use of opioids (heroin, opium and prescription opioids) has increased in Asia since 2009, particularly in East, South-East, Central and South-West Asia. While reliable data do not exist for most parts of Africa, experts report an increase in the use of opioids there. North America 3.9 per cent), Oceania (3.0 per cent), the Near and Middle
East/South-West Asia (1.9 per cent) and East and South-Eastern Europe (1.2 per cent) show a prevalence of opioid use that is higher than the global average. The use of opiates (heroin and opium) has remained stable in some regions, nevertheless, a high prevalence is reported in the Near and Middle East/South-West Asia (1.2 per cent), primarily in Afghanistan, Iran (Islamic Republic of ) and Pakistan, as well as Central Asia (0.8 per cent), Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (0.8 per cent), North America (0.5 per cent) and West and Central Africa (0.4 per cent)."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 2.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

32. Global Estimated Prevalence of IDU-Related HIV, 2011

"Of the estimated 14.0 million (range: 11.2 million to 22.0 million) people who inject drugs worldwide, UNODC estimates that 1.6 million (range: 1.2 million to 3.9 million) are living with HIV. That represents a global prevalence of HIV of 11.5 per cent among people who inject drugs.15
"Along with the estimates of the total number of people who inject drugs, the global total and prevalence rates of people who inject drugs living with HIV for 2011 is also lower than the estimated 3 million (18.9 per cent prevalence among people who inject drugs) previously presented by the Reference Group to the United Nations on HIV and Injecting Drug Use for 2008. These reduced estimates are in large part a result of the availability of more reliable information on HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 5.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

33. Global Estimate of Prevalence of Injection Drug Use

"Updating the previous global estimates, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates that in 2011 a total of 14.0 million (range: 11.2 million to 22.0 million) people injected drugs worldwide, which corresponds to 0.31 per cent (range: 0.24-0.48 per cent) of the population aged 15-64.14 The current global estimates are lower than the previous ones of 15.9 million people, and primarily reflect the fact that many countries have revised their earlier estimates downward, based on behavioural surveillance data. However, many countries have also reported an increase in the prevalence of injecting drug use and in the number of people who inject drugs.
"Changes over time in national, regional and global estimates of injecting drug use may result from a number of factors, such as improvements in the methodology or coverage of behavioural surveillance (e.g., Georgia, Italy and South Africa), additional countries undertaking behavioural surveillance for the first time (Kenya and Seychelles) or changes in patterns of drug use, including injecting drug use (Australia and Brazil). Such factors have contributed to the overall reduced global estimates of people who inject drugs. Notable increases in the estimated number of people who inject drugs have been reported from Pakistan, the Russian Federation and Viet Nam, while countries reporting a considerable reduction include Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, Thailand and the United States."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 3.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

34. Estimated Prevalence of Current Methamphetamine Use in the US, 2014

Amphetamine-Type Stimulants

"In 2014, the estimated 1.6 million people aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants included 569,000 people who were current methamphetamine users (Figure 8). Thus, almost two thirds of current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2014 who were aged 12 or older reported current nonmedical use of prescription stimulants but not methamphetamine.
"These numbers of nonmedical users of stimulants and methamphetamine users represent 0.6 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants (Figure 9) and 0.2 percent who were current users of methamphetamine in 2014 (Figure 10). The percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current nonmedical users of stimulants was higher than the percentages for most years between 2005 and 2012. Meanwhile, the percentage of the population aged 12 or older in 2014 who were current users of methamphetamine was similar to the percentages for most years between 2002 and 2013."

Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2015). Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15-4927, NSDUH Series H-50), pp. 8-9.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sit...

35. Global Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Use, 2011

"Use of ATS, excluding 'ecstasy', remains widespread globally, and appears to be increasing. Although prevalence estimates are not available from Asia and Africa, experts from these regions continue to report a perceived increase in the use of ATS. While the use of ATS was already a problem in East and South-East Asia, there are reports of increasing diversion of precursor chemicals, as well as increased seizures and manufacture of methamphetamine, combined with an increase in its use. Current data from the drug use survey in Pakistan, for instance supports this assessment. Use of ATS is emerging in Pakistan, with a reported annual prevalence of 0.1 per cent among the general population.3 High levels of ATS use are reported in Oceania (2.1 per cent in Australia and New Zealand), Central and North America (1.3 per cent each) and Africa (0.9 per cent), while the estimated annual prevalence of ATS use in Asia (0.7 per cent) is comparable with the global average."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 2.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

36. Global Estimated Prevalence of Injection Drug Use, by Region

"At a regional level, a high prevalence of injecting drug use is found in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (1.3 per cent of the population aged 15-64), where the percentage of people who inject drugs is four times greater than the global average and which alone accounts for 21 per cent of the total number of people who inject drugs globally.
"A high prevalence rate for injecting drug use is also noted in Central Asia (1.3 per cent), which has a rate of more than four times the global average. Injecting drug use also remains a serious public health concern in a number of countries in East and South-East Asia, with the region accounting for 27 per cent of the global total. South Asia has the lowest level of injecting drug use (0.03 per cent, mostly as a result of the low prevalence rate reported in India), considerably lower than that of any other region.
"Countries and areas with the highest rates of injecting drug use – more than 3.5 times the global average — are Azerbaijan (5.2 per cent), Seychelles (2.3 per cent), the Russian Federation (2.3 per cent), Estonia (1.5 per cent), Georgia (1.3 per cent), Canada (1.3 per cent), the Republic of Moldova (1.2 per cent), Puerto Rico (1.15 per cent), Latvia (1.15 per cent) and Belarus (1.11 per cent). China, the Russian Federation and the United States are the countries with the largest numbers of people who inject drugs. Combined, they account for an estimated 46 per cent, or nearly one in two, people who inject drugs globally."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), pp. 3-5.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/se...

37. Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use Among Full-Time Employees in the US,

"• The prevalence of past month illicit drug use among adult full-time workers was 8.2 percent (Figure 2.3 and Tables 2.2 and 2.3).
"• Nearly one out of five (19.0 percent) workers aged 18 to 25 used illicit drugs during the past month. This was a higher percentage than among the 26-to-34 (10.3 percent), 35-to-49 (7.0 percent), and 50-to-64 (2.6 percent) age groups (Figure 2.3 and Table 2.2).
"• Males were more likely than females to report past month illicit drug use (9.7 vs. 6.2 percent). Males accounted for about two thirds (6.4 million) of the workers who reported past month illicit drug use (Figure 2.4 and Table 2.2).
"• The prevalence of past month illicit drug use for white adults was 8.8 percent, higher than the prevalence for Asian (2.2 percent) or Hispanic (6.7 percent) adults, and lower than that reported for adults who reported two or more races (13.5 percent). The prevalence of past month illicit drug use by Asians was lower than that reported by all other racial/ethnic groups reported here (Figure 2.5 and Table 2.2)."

Larson, S. L., Eyerman, J., Foster, M. S., & Gfroerer, J. C. (2007). Worker Substance Use and Workplace Policies and Programs (DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4273, Analytic Series A-29). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, p. 12.
http://adaiclearinghouse.org/d...

38. Estimated Misuse of Prescription Drugs and Pain Relievers in the US

"About 1.0 percent of people aged 12 or older (2.7 million) had a prescription drug use disorder in the past year, including 2.0 million people with a pain reliever use disorder, 688,000 with a tranquilizer use disorder, 426,000 with a stimulant use disorder, and 154,000 with a sedative use disorder. In 2015, as part of their most recent substance use treatment, 822,000 people received treatment for the misuse of pain relievers, 293,000 people received treatment for tranquilizer misuse, 139,000 received treatment for stimulant misuse, and 116,000 received treatment for sedative misuse.
"Among people aged 12 or older who misused prescription pain relievers in the past year, the most commonly reported reason for their last misuse was to relieve physical pain (62.6 percent). Among past year misusers of tranquilizers, the most commonly reported reasons were to relax or relieve tension (44.9 percent) or to help with sleep (20.4 percent). Commonly reported reasons for misuse among stimulant misusers were to help be alert or stay awake, help concentrate, or help study (26.8, 26.5, and 22.5 percent, respectively). Among past year sedative misusers, the most common reason was to help with sleep (71.7 percent). Even if people misused prescription drugs for conditions for which these drugs are typically prescribed (e.g., for pain relief or to help with sleep), use without one’s own prescription or use more often or at a higher dosage than prescribed nevertheless constitutes misuse.
"Among people aged 12 or older who misused pain relievers in the past year, the most common source for the last pain reliever that was misused was from a friend or relative (53.7 percent), and about one third misused a prescription from one doctor. About 1 in 20 people who misused pain relievers bought the last pain reliever they misused from a drug dealer or stranger."

Hughes, A., Williams, M. R., Lipari, R. N., Bose, J., Copello, E. A. P., & Kroutil, L. A. (2016, September). Prescription drug use and misuse in the United States:
Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Data Review, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...
https://www.samhsa.gov/data/si...

39. Current Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants in the US, 2013

"• The number and percentage of persons aged 12 or older who were current nonmedical users of stimulants in 2013 (1.4 million or 0.5 percent) were similar to those in 2012 (1.2 million or 0.5 percent), but were higher than the estimates in 2011 (970,000 or 0.4 percent)."

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014, p. 17.
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...
http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSD...

40. Drug Usage - Data - Nonmedical Use of Ritalin and Adderal by US Youth, 2014

(Nonmedical Use of Ritalin and Adderal by US Youth, 2014)
"• Between 1982 and 1992, among 12th graders levels of amphetamine use in the past 12 months (other than use that was ordered by a physician) fell by nearly two thirds, from 20.3% to 7.1%. Levels among college students fell even more over the same interval, from 21.1% to 3.6%. During the relapse phase in the drug epidemic in the 1990s, annual amphetamine use increased by about half among 8th and 10th graders between 1991 and 1996, and also increased among 12th graders and college students between 1992 and 1996. After 1996 the age groups diverged, with amphetamine use declining gradually and substantially among 8th graders—where use is now a fraction of what it was in 1996 — but continuing to rise among 12th graders (and eventually 10th graders), college students, and young adults until about 2002. The declines continued in the upper grades through about 2008 but through 2013 for 8th graders. Since 2009, annual prevalence has increased among 12th graders (from 6.6% to 8.1% in 2014), perhaps as a result of more students using amphetamines to help their academic work. Among students in college, amphetamine use rose even more sharply from 5.7% in 2008 to 10.1% in 2014, likely for the same reason. Young adults, who include the college students, showed less of an increase over the same interval, from 5.3% in 2008 to 8.0% in 2014. The pattern of cross-age-group change suggests a cohort effect at work for amphetamine use. Since the late 1990s there has been a greater difference between use among 8th graders and use by older students, suggesting that an age effect has emerged, possibly due to the older students becoming more likely to use amphetamines to aid their academic performance. (“To help me study” was the highest endorsed reason 12th graders gave for amphetamine use in 2012 and the third highest in 2014.)
"Among 12th graders, the increase in nonmedical use of amphetamines (and a concurrent decrease in disapproval) began in 1993; this followed a sharp drop in perceived risk a year earlier (which, as we have noted for a number of drugs, often serves as a leading indicator). Following a period of decline, perceived risk among 12th graders increased gradually from 1995 through 2009.1
"• Use of the stimulant drug Ritalin outside of medical supervision showed a distinct increase around 1997 — with annual prevalence among 12th graders going from 0.1% in 1992 to 2.8% in 1997 — and then stayed level for a few years (see Appendix E, Table E-22). Because of its increasing importance, a differently structured question was introduced for Ritalin use in 2001 (2002 in the follow-ups of college students and young adults). This new question, which we prefer to the original, does not use a prior branching question and produced somewhat higher prevalence levels. Results from the new question suggest an ongoing decline in Ritalin use, with prevalence levels in 2014 less than half of what they were when first measured in 2001-02.
"• Another stimulant used in the treatment of the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the amphetamine drug Adderall. A new question on its non-medical use was introduced in 2009; annual prevalence levels in 2009 through 2014 were higher than those for Ritalin in all five populations. This suggests that Adderall may have to some degree replaced the use of Ritalin and may help to account for the declines that we have been observing for the latter drug. Annual prevalence of Adderall changed rather little between 2009 and 2014 in 8th and 10th grades, although the levels seem to be drifting down. In 12th grade, however, annual prevalence has risen from 5.4% in 2009 to 7.6% in 2012, followed by non-significant declines over the next two years. The absolute prevalence levels in 2014 are fairly high, particularly among 12th graders (6.8%), young adults (7.8%), and college students (9.6%)."

Miech, R. A., Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (June 2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, pp. 18-19.
http://monitoringthefuture.org...

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