Heroin

41. Effectiveness of Enforcement

"Similar evidence of the drug war’s failure is provided by US drug surveillance data. For example, from 1981 to 2011, the budget of the US Office of National Drug Control Policy increased by more than 600 percent (inflation-adjusted). However, despite increasing annual multibillion dollar investments in drug control, US government data suggest an approximate inflation- and purity-adjusted decrease in heroin price of 80 percent, and a greater than 900 percent increase in heroin purity between 1981 and 2002, clearly indicating that expenditures on interventions to reduce the supply of heroin into the United States were unsuccessful."

"The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS: How the Criminalization of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic," Global Commission on Drug Policy (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: June 2012), p. 11.
http://globalcommissionondrugs...

42. Non-Injection Means of Ingestion As A Reason For Growth in Heroin Use Among Young People

"We do think that the expansion in the world supply of heroin, particularly in the 1990s, had the effect of dramatically raising the purity of heroin available on the streets, thus allowing for new means of ingestion. The advent of new forms of heroin, rather than any change in respondents’ beliefs about the dangers associated with injecting heroin, very likely contributed to the fairly sharp increase in heroin use in the 1990s. Evidence from this study, showing that a significant portion of the self-reported heroin users in recent years are using by means other than injection, lends credibility to this interpretation. The dramatic decline in LSD use in the early to mid-2000s is also not explainable by means of concurrent changes in perceived risk or disapproval; but availability did decline sharply during this period and very likely played a key role in reducing the use of that drug."

Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E. & Miech, R. A. (2014). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, p. 462.
http://www.monitoringthefuture...

43. Acute Effects of Opioids

"Acute intoxication is characterized by euphoria and drowsiness. Mast cell effects (eg, flushing, itching) are common, particularly with morphine. GI [gastro-intestinal] effects include nausea, vomiting, decreased bowel sounds, and constipation."

"Opioids," The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals, Special Subjects: Drug Use and Dependence, Opioids (Merck & Co. Inc., last revised July 2008), last accessed Jan. 12, 2013.
http://www.merckmanuals.com/pr...

44. Wholesale Price of Heroin in the US and Around the World

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

In the United States in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of black tar heroin ranged from $12,000 to $100,000 per kilogram; the wholesale price of South American heroin ranged from $10,000 to $100,000 per kilogram and the price of southwest Asian heroin ranged from $50,000 to $85,000 per kilogram.

In Mexico in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of heroin was $35,000 per kilogram.

In Colombia in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of raw opium was $694.50 per kilogram; the wholesale price of illicit morphine was $3,746.10 per kilogram; and the wholesale price of heroin was $5,523.90 per kilogram.

In Hong Kong in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of heroin ranged from $47,603.70 to $51,152.10 per kilogram.

In Thailand in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of opium ranged from $519.70 to $779.50 per kilogram; the wholesale price of heroin ranged from $9,146.30 to $12,472.30 for 700 grams.

In Afghanistan in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of raw opium was $150 per kilogram; the wholesale price of heroin was $2,229.50 per kilogram; and the wholesale price of high purity heroin was $3,294.50 per kilogram.

In Pakistan in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the wholesale price of raw opium ranged from $322 to $439 per kilogram; the wholesale price of illicit morphine ranged from $600.90 to $1089 per kilogram; and the wholesale price of heroin ranged from $2,469.50 to $3,468.10 per kilogram.

Drug Prices Report: Opioids. Region: Americas. Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels, by drug, region and country or territory. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Data retrieved via UNODC Statistics at https://stats.unodc.org on June 1, 2018.
http://drugwarfacts.org/sites/...

45. Retail Price of Heroin in the US, Canada and the UK

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

In the United States in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of black tar heroin ranged from $20 to $300 per gram; the retail price of South American heroin ranged from $25 to $400 per gram; and the retail price of southwest Asian heroin ranged from $120 to $300 per gram.

In Canada in 2014 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of opium ranged from $43 to $55.90 per gram; and the retail price of heroin ranged from $154.80 to $300.90 per gram.

In the UK in 2015 (the most recent year for which data are available), the retail price of heroin number 2 (heroin base) ranged from $59.30 to $88.9 per gram.

Drug Prices Report: Opioids. Region: Americas. Retail and wholesale prices and purity levels, by drug, region and country or territory. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Data retrieved via UNODC Statistics at https://stats.unodc.org on June 1, 2018.
http://drugwarfacts.org/sites/...

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