Information and data on criminal justice and law enforcement in general, with a special focus on drug enforcement and drug policy. Data sources include the FBI's Uniform Crime Report, various reports from the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics, and reports from the UN Office on Drugs and Crime as well as information from academic journals, thinktanks, and nonprofit research organizations.

Impact of Medical Marijuana Laws on Crime Rates

"The central finding gleaned from the present study was that MML is not predictive of higher crime rates and may be related to reductions in rates of homicide and assault. Interestingly, robbery and burglary rates were unaffected by medicinal marijuana legislation, which runs counter to the claim that dispensaries and grow houses lead to an increase in victimization due to the opportunity structures linked to the amount of drugs and cash that are present.

Average Police Time It Takes to Make An Arrest for Marijuana Possession

Average Police Time Taken Per Marijuana Arrest: "In those eleven years the NYPD made a total of 439,056 possession-only arrests. Multiplied by two and a half hours of police time per arrest that equals 1,097,640 hours - or approximately one million hours of police officer time to make 440,000 marijuana arrests. That is the equivalent of having 31 police officers working eight hours a day, 365 days a year, for 11 years, making only marijuana possession arrests."

Drug Arrests in the US, 2010, by Age and Gender

Drug Arrests in the US, 2010, by Age and Gender: "State and local law enforcement agencies made an estimated 1,336,500 arrests for drug possession or use in 2010. Females were 20% of these arrests. The median age in drug possession or use arrests was 26. Eleven percent of drug possession or use arrests in 2010 involved a juvenile, 18% involved persons age 40 or older, and 6% involved persons age 50 or older."

Drug Arrest Trends in the US 1990-2010

Drug Arrest Trends in the US 1990-2010: "There were 80% more arrests for drug possession or use in 2010 (1,336,530) than in 1990 (741,600). Between 1990 and its peak in 2006, the arrest rate for drug possession or use increased 75% (figure 37). The arrest rate declined between 2006 and 2010, ending in 2010 at 46% above its 1990 level and at a level similar to those seen between 1997 and 2002."

Definition of 'Clearance' in Crime Statistics

"In the UCR Program, a law enforcement agency reports that an offense is cleared by arrest, or solved for crime reporting purposes, when three specific conditions have been met. The three conditions are that at least one person has been:

"• Arrested.
"• Charged with the commission of the offense.
"• Turned over to the court for prosecution (whether following arrest, courtsummons, or police notice).

Proportion of Reported Criminal Offenses Cleared by Arrest or Exception Means in the US

"• In the nation in 2016, 45.6 percent of violent crimes and 18.3 percent of property crimes were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.
"• When considering clearances of violent crimes, 59.4 percent of murder offenses, 53.3 percent of aggravated assault offenses, 40.9 percent of rape offenses (legacy definition), 36.5 percent of rape offenses (revised definition), and 29.6 percent of robbery offenses were cleared. (Please note, the legacy and revised UCR definitions for rape can be accessed in Offense Definitions.)

Collateral Consequences: Drivers License Revocation As a Result of Conviction on Drug Charges

Drivers License Revocation As a Result of Conviction on Drug Charges: "In the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriation Act of 1992,Congress required the withholding of ten percent of certain federal highway funds unless a state either: 1) enacts and enforces a law revoking or suspending for at least six months the driver's license of an individual who is convicted of any drug offense; or 2) the governor submits written certification to the Secretary of the Department of Transportation that he or she opposes the revocation/suspension,

Drug Policy Reform and Criminal Justice Priorities

Drug Policy Reform and Criminal Justice Priorities: "Some experts propose easing certain laws to allow the government to concentrate its limited resources on the most pressing criminal activities. For example, some advocate decriminalizing the possession of small amounts of marijuana. Others, concerned that the government may be overwhelmed, have proposed legalizing some counterfeit products and easing certain piracy restrictions. Intellectual property-related legal changes would probably require contentious negotiations with affected U.S. industries.