(Origin of the Controlled Substances Act) "With increasing use of marijuana and other street drugs during the 1960s, notably by college and high school students, federal drug-control laws came under scrutiny. In July 1969, President Nixon asked Congress to enact legislation to combat rising levels of drug use. Hearings were held, different proposals were considered, and House and Senate conferees filed a conference report in October 1970.
Information and data on criminal justice and law enforcement in general, with a special focus on drug enforcement and drug policy. Data sources include the FBI's Uniform Crime Report, various reports from the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics, and reports from the UN Office on Drugs and Crime as well as information from academic journals, thinktanks, and nonprofit research organizations.
(Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations) "Today Mexico is a major producer and supplier to the U.S. market of heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana and the major transit country for cocaine sold in the United States. According to the Department of State’s 2009 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, as much as 90% of the cocaine entering the United States now transits through Mexico. A small number of Mexican DTOs control the most significant drug distribution operations along the Southwest border.
(Arrests by DEA, 2009, by Substance) "The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) arrested 29,896 suspects for drug offenses in 2009, a nearly 10% increase from 27,235 arrests in 2008.
(Cross Border Drug Smuggling Tunnels Between Mexico and the US) "Illicit cross-border tunnels allow smugglers to move marijuana and, to a lesser extent, other drugs, weapons, currency, people, and other contraband illegally across the border. More than 170 illicit crossborder tunnels have been discovered in the United States since 1990.53 These tunnels have been found near POEs, where traffic and noise conceal tunneling activities.
"CBP and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) have delineated four types of cross-border
(Violence As a Result of Drug Law Enforcement) "Based on the available English language scientific evidence, the results of this systematic review suggest that an increase in drug law enforcement interventions to disrupt drug markets is unlikely to reduce violence attributable to drug gangs.
(Placement of Drugs in the Controlled Substances Act) "As this paper demonstrates, the pharmacological effect of a drug does not necessarily determine how a drug will be governed. Rather, it is the way a drug is framed that determines how the drug will be popularly understood and ultimately regulated. According to the Regulatory Regime / Norms model, the meaning of any drug (how it is perceived or understood) is initially ambiguous and indeterminate.
(Diversion and Fraud) "According to law enforcement reporting, some individuals and criminal groups divert CPDs [controlled prescription drugs] through doctor-shopping and use insurance fraud to fund their schemes. In fact, Aetna, Inc. reports that nearly half of its 1,065 member fraud cases in 2006 (the latest year for which data are available) involved prescription benefits, and most were related to doctor-shopping, according to the Coalition Against Insurance Fraud (CAIF).
(Crack/Powder Cocaine Sentencing Disparity Changed In 2010)
On August 3, 2010, President Barack Obama "signed an historic piece of legislation that narrows the crack and powder cocaine sentencing disparity from 100:1 to 18:1 and for the first time eliminates the mandatory minimum sentence for simple possession of crack cocaine."
(Accomplishments Claimed by HIDTA Funded Initiatives) "In 2014, HIDTA-funded initiatives disrupted or dismantled 2,877 drug trafficking organizations, removing significant quantities of drugs from the market and seizing over $1.1 billion in cash and noncash assets from drug traffickers.† In addition, law enforcement has made strides against Consolidated Priority Organization Target (CPOT) organizations.
(High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas) "The ONDCP Director designates new HIDTAs in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, heads of the National Drug Control Program agencies, and relevant State governors. Funding from HIDTA helps Federal, State, local and tribal law enforcement organizations invest in infrastructure, some operational requirements, and joint initiatives to dismantle and disrupt drug trafficking organizations.