South America

Unreliable Information on Counternarcotics Funding to Andean Countries

(Unreliable Information on Counternarcotics Funding to Andean Countries) "Given the strategic importance of reducing drug production and trafficking in the Andean countries—the source of more than 95 percent of the cocaine seized in the United States and much of the heroin available east of the Mississippi River—accurate and reliable information on the results of this assistance is essential.

Counternarcotics Assistance to Andean Countries, by Agency

(Counternarcotics Assistance to Andean Countries, by Agency) "Of the agencies’ combined estimated assistance in fiscal years 2006 through 2011, State provided about $3 billion (60 percent), USAID provided $1 billion (21 percent), DOD provided $956 million (19 percent), and DEA provided $25 million (less than 1 percent). As figure 4 shows, each agency’s allotments decreased during this time period. State’s allotments for counternarcotics assistance declined the most, dropping by about 60 percent from fiscal year 2006 to fiscal year 2011.

Declines in Counternarcotics Assistance to Andean Countries

(Declines in Counternarcotics Assistance to Andean Countries) "Total estimated allotments for counternarcotics assistance programs in the Andean countries declined overall by about 51 percent from fiscal year 2006 to fiscal year 2011. Allotments for Bolivia declined by about $103 million (87 percent); for Colombia, by $377 million (45 percent); for Ecuador, by $32 million (59 percent); for Peru, by $87 million (52 percent); and for Venezuela, by $2 million (88 percent).

US Counternarcotics Assistance to Andean Countries

(US Counternarcotics Assistance to Andean Countries) "State, USAID, DOD, and DEA allotted a combined estimated total of nearly $5.2 billion in counternarcotics assistance to Andean countries in fiscal years 2006-2011. Of this amount, about $366 million (7 percent) was allotted for Bolivia; $3.92 billion (76 percent) for Colombia; $233 million (5 percent) for Ecuador; $659 million (13 percent) for Peru; and $7 million (less than 1 percent) for Venezuela (see fig. 2)."

US Counternarcotics Strategies in Andean Countries

(US Counternarcotics Strategies in Andean Countries) "Although no single comprehensive U.S. counternarcotics strategy exists for the Andean region, mission strategic resource plans (MSRPs) for each of the countries in the region delineate the strategic approaches guiding U.S. counternarcotics assistance. According to State officials, the MSRPs incorporate high-level guidance from ONDCP’s annual National Drug Control Strategy, which also includes specific policy guidance for the Western Hemisphere.

Cocaine - History of Coca

(History of Coca) "Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the coca leaf has been cultivated and used by the indigenous people of the Andes region for at least 4,000-5,000 years while other estimates put this as far back as 20,000 years. By the time of the Spanish colonial conquest, coca use extended all the way from what is today Costa Rica and Venezuela, through the Brazilian Amazon (coca’s place of origin) and on down to Paraguay, northern Argentina and Chile."

Air Bridge Denial Program

(Air Bridge Denial Program) "The Air Bridge Denial Program derives its name from its goal: to deny the South American drug network the “air bridge” used to transfer semi-refined cocaine from growing areas in rural Peru, Bolivia and Colombia to processing plants in Colombia and onward to destination countries.

Central and South America - Law & Policy - 2-16-11

(Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy) "Taking into account our continent’s experience in the fight against the narcotics trade and the seriousness of the problem, the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy addresses the present statement to our countries’ governments and public opinion, to the United Nations and the international community, proposing a new paradigm based on three main directives:
"• Treating drug users as a matter of public health.

Legal Coca Production

Legal Coca Production: "Coca is regarded as a sacred leaf by some of the indigenous American communities of the Andes and Amazon basin, where it has been used for a variety of purposes for thousands of years (Mortimer, 1974). As a consequence, the legal status of coca is sometimes ambiguous in South America, complicating efforts to control cocaine production.