Cocaine & Crack

Cocaine and Crack

Spraying Counterproductive

(Spraying Counterproductive) "Critics note that the spraying has not prevented the tripling of the area under coca cultivation since Pastrana's inauguration, and that the spraying simply destroys the means of livelihood of subsistence farmers and displaces the crops deeper into the jungle. The coca producers have also adapted by developing new varieties of the coca plant, such as the Tingo Maria, which produces three times as much coca as the traditional varieties."

Land Subjected To Crop Eradication in Colombia

(Land Subjected To Crop Eradication in Colombia) "Between 1998 and 2009, the area subjected to manual eradication increased from 3,125 ha to 60,577 ha, while aerial spraying—using a formula known as Roundup® (a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-FluxTM)—rose by more than 58 percent, from 66,029 ha to 104,772 ha.3 Between 2003 and 2009, the Bogotá government invested $835 million to underwrite these programs, a figure that is expected to surge to $1.5 billion by 2013.4"

Economics - Data - 2004 - 1-15-10

(Price of Cocaine) In 2010, a kilogram of cocaine base in Colombia typically sold for $1,474.50 and a kilogram of cocaine typically sold for $2,438.80. In Peru in 2008, a kilogram of cocaine base typically sold for $850 and a kilogram of cocaine typically sold for $1,250. In Mexico in 2010, a kilogram of cocaine typically sold for $12,500. In the United States in 2010, the cost of a kilogram of cocaine typically ranged from $11,500-$50,000, and the cost of a kilogram of crack ranged from $14,000-$45,000.

Treatment for Cocaine Toxicity

(Treatment for Cocaine Toxicity) " Treatment of mild cocaine intoxication is generally unnecessary because the drug is extremely short-acting. Benzodiazepines are the preferred initial treatment for most toxic effects, including CNS excitation and seizures, tachycardia, and hypertension. Lorazepam 2 to 3 mg IV q 5 min titrated to effect may be used. High doses and a continuous infusion may be required. Propofol infusion, with mechanical ventilation, may be used for resistant cases.

Cocaine Toxicity or Overdose

(Cocaine Toxicity or Overdose) "An overdose may cause severe anxiety, panic, agitation, aggression, sleeplessness, hallucinations, paranoid delusions, impaired judgment, tremors, seizures, and delirium. Mydriasis and diaphoresis are apparent, and heart rate and BP are increased. Death may result from MI or arrhythmias.

How Cocaine Affects the Brain

(How Cocaine Affects the Brain) "Cocaine is a strong central nervous system stimulant that increases levels of dopamine, a brain chemical (or neurotransmitter) associated with pleasure and movement, in the brain’s reward circuit. Certain brain cells, or neurons, use dopamine to communicate. Normally, dopamine is released by a neuron in response to a pleasurable signal (e.g., the smell of good food), and then recycled back into the cell that released it, thus shutting off the signal between neurons.