European Union

Need for Social Reintegration and Services for Drug Users

(Need for Social Reintegration and Services for Drug Users) "Drug use is an important factor that increases the likelihood of concurrent social exclusion (EMCDDA, 2003a). However, there is no clear causality between drug use and social exclusion, as either may lead to the other, and both may be preceded and caused by (unknown) third factors. Many problem drug users already experienced problems in other spheres of life, including social exclusion, prior to their drug use.

Availability of Specialized Treatment Services

(Availability of Specialized Treatment Services) "Treatment units or programmes that exclusively service one specified target group are a common phenomenon across the EU. Children and young people under the age of 18 are treated in specialised agencies in 23 countries; the treatment of drug users with psychiatric co-morbidity takes place in specialised agencies in 18 countries; and women-specific services are reported to exist in all countries except Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Turkey.

Availability of Substitution Treatment in the EU

(Availability of Substitution Treatment in the EU) "Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication, received by up to two-thirds of substitution clients, while buprenorphine is prescribed to most of the remaining clients (about 20%), and is the principal substitution medication in six countries (Figure 3.7). About 6% of all substitution treatments in Europe rely on the prescription of other substances, such as slow-release morphine or diacetylmorphine (heroin).