European Union

Universal Prevention Strategies

(Universal Prevention Strategies) "Universal prevention addresses entire populations, predominantly in school and community settings. It aims to reduce substance-related risk behaviour by providing young people with the necessary competences to avoid or delay initiation into substance use. A recent evaluation of the ‘Unplugged’ prevention programme in the Czech Republic found that participating students reported significantly reduced rates of smoking, as well as less frequent smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and use of any drug (Gabrhelik et al., 2012).

European Homicide Rates

(European Homicide Rates) "Countries in Europe have some of the lowest homicide rates in the world, but sub-national data can paint some interesting pictures within those countries and in certain trans-border regions (see map 1.4). The most significant differences lie in the west-to-east geographical distribution of homicide, as homicide rates increase eastwards across Europe, and there are also higher homicide rates in certain parts of Northern Europe.

Increasing Availability of Opioid Substitution Treatment in the EU

(Increasing Availability of Opioid Substitution Treatment in the EU) "The most common type of treatment for opioid dependence in Europe is substitution treatment, typically integrated with psychosocial care and provided at specialist outpatient centres. Sixteen countries report that it is also provided by general practitioners. In some countries, general practitioners provide this treatment in a shared-care arrangement with specialist treatment centres.

Availability of Psychosocial Treatment in the EU

(Availability of Psychosocial Treatment in the EU) "In a 2010 survey, national experts reported outpatient psychosocial treatment in Europe to be available to nearly all who seek it in 14 countries, and to the majority of those who seek it in 11 countries. In three countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Romania) however, outpatient psychosocial treatment is estimated to be available to fewer than half of those who actively seek it.

Cost of Opioid Substitution Treatment

(Cost of Opioid Substitution Treatment) "From published studies, it is possible to extract additional data on unit costs. In England, a research study, based on 401 clients from seven clinics specialising in substitution treatment, estimated the range of costs of ‘treatment as usual’ (Raistrick et al., 2007). The average total cost of treatment per patient per day was EUR 3 (EUR 3, price year 2007), excluding the cost of prescribed drugs, and EUR 6 (EUR 5, price year 2007) including prescribed drugs.

Supervised Injection Facilities in the EU

(Supervised Injection Facilities in the EU) "Highly targeted interventions, such as supervised injecting facilities, reach specific subgroups of highly marginalised drug users and contribute to reducing morbidity and mortality. In Denmark, a mobile injection room, providing a safer injecting environment and medical supervision was established in Copenhagen in 2011 by a private organisation (131).

Naloxone and Overdose Prevention in the EU

(Naloxone and Overdose Prevention in the EU) "In 2011, two thirds of European countries reported that ambulance personnel are trained in naloxone use; in just over half of these countries, naloxone is reported to be one of the standard medications carried in ambulances. Only Italy, Romania and the United Kingdom report the existence of community-based harm-reduction programmes that provide take-home naloxone to opioid users, their family members and carers.

Safe Smoking Devices

(Safe Smoking Devices) "Provision of specific harm-reduction programmes for crack cocaine smokers in Europe is limited. Some drug consumption facilities in three countries (Germany, Spain,
Netherlands) provide facilities for inhalation of drugs, including crack cocaine. Hygienic inhalation devices
including clean crack pipes or ‘crack kits’ (glass stem with mouth piece, metal screen, lip balm and hand wipes)

Hepatitis C Prevalence Among Young Injectors in the EU

(Hepatitis C Prevalence Among Young Injectors in the EU) "Studies on young injectors (under 25) suggest a decline in prevalence of HCV at sub-national level in Slovakia, which may indicate falling transmission rates. Increases among young injecting drug users were reported in Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus and Austria, although sample sizes in Greece, Cyprus and Austria were small. Increasing HCV prevalence among new injecting drug users (injecting for less than two years) was reported in Greece (nationally and in one region) (112).