European Union

Public Expenditure on Drug Law Offenders in Prison in the European Union

(Public Expenditure on Drug Law Offenders in Prison in the European Union) "Within this framework, the EMCDDA has calculated a range of estimates of public expenditures on drug-law offenders in prison. The low estimate considers only those prisoners who have been sentenced for a drug-law offence. The high estimate also includes pre-trial prisoners who may be sentenced for a drug-law offence (assuming that the proportion of drug-law offenders among pre-trial prisoners is identical to that of drug-law offenders among sentenced prisoners).

SIFs and Referrals to Treatment

(SIFs and Referrals to Treatment) "A more controversial approach has been adopted in some cities in Europe, where the concept of safe consumption rooms, usually targeting drug injection, has been extended to drug inhalation. Rooms for supervised inhalation have been opened in several Dutch, German and Swiss cities (EMCDDA, 2004c).

Prevalence of Mephedrone and Synthetic Cathinone Use in the EU

(Prevalence of Mephedrone and Synthetic Cathinone Use in the EU) "Synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone and MPDV, have now carved a space in the illicit stimulants market in some countries. The limited information available suggests that prevalence levels remain low. Repeat surveys that include cathinones are only available for the United Kingdom (England and Wales). In the most recent survey (2012/13), last year use of mephedrone among adults aged 16 to 59 was estimated at 0.5 %, a decrease from 1.1 % in 2011/12 and 1.4 % in 2010/11.

Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Young People in the European Union

(Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Young People in the European Union) "The most prevalent illicit drug in all ESPAD countries is cannabis. On average, 16 % of the students have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime (Table 7a). The country with the highest prevalence of cannabis use was the Czech Republic (37 %). High prevalence rates (30% or more) were also reported in France, Liechtenstein and Monaco.

DRUID Project Evaluation of Oral Fluid (Saliva) Testing Devices for DUI Enforcement

(DRUID Project Evaluation of Oral Fluid (Saliva) Testing Devices for DUI Enforcement) "It is disturbing that the sensitivities of the cannabis and cocaine tests were all quite low, although further testing of the cocaine tests is desirable due to the low prevalences and the low concentrations encountered in this study. There are several countries in Central and Southern Europe for which these two substance classes are of special interest.

Prevalence of Substance Use Among Injured Drivers

(Prevalence of Substance Use Among Injured Drivers) "Studies of hospitalised, seriously injured car drivers were conducted in six countries, and studies of car drivers killed in accidents took place in four countries. Among the injured or killed drivers, the most commonly consumed substance was alcohol alone, followed by alcohol combined with another substance. The use of illicit drugs alone was not frequently detected.

Prevalence of Substance Use Among Drivers in EU

(Prevalence of Substance Use Among Drivers in EU) "Roadside surveys conducted in 13 countries across Europe, in which blood or oral fluid samples from 50 000 drivers were analysed, revealed that alcohol was present in 3.48 %, illicit drugs in 1.90 %, medicines in 1.36 %, combinations of drugs or medicines in 0.39 % and alcohol combined with drugs or medicines in 0.37 %. However, there were large differences among the mean values in the regions of northern, eastern, southern and western Europe.

Universal Prevention Strategies

(Universal Prevention Strategies) "Universal prevention addresses entire populations, predominantly in school and community settings. It aims to reduce substance-related risk behaviour by providing young people with the necessary competences to avoid or delay initiation into substance use. A recent evaluation of the ‘Unplugged’ prevention programme in the Czech Republic found that participating students reported significantly reduced rates of smoking, as well as less frequent smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and use of any drug (Gabrhelik et al., 2012).

European Homicide Rates

(European Homicide Rates) "Countries in Europe have some of the lowest homicide rates in the world, but sub-national data can paint some interesting pictures within those countries and in certain trans-border regions (see map 1.4). The most significant differences lie in the west-to-east geographical distribution of homicide, as homicide rates increase eastwards across Europe, and there are also higher homicide rates in certain parts of Northern Europe.