(Voting Rights and International Law) "The basic principles for electoral democracy are laid out in international law. Article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) declares that 'Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:. . .(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors. .
(2009 - United States - Afghanistan opium industry and U.S. counter-narcotics strategy) "As part of the military expansion, the administration has assigned U.S. troops a lead role in trying to stop the flow of illicit drug profits that are bankrolling the Taliban and fueling the corruption that undermines the Afghan Government. Tens of millions of drug dollars are helping the Taliban and other insurgent groups buy arms, build deadlier roadside bombs and pay fighters.
(Payment Options by Treatment Facility Type, 2012) "Facilities were asked to indicate whether or not they accepted specified types of payment or insurance for substance abuse treatment. They were also asked about the use of a sliding fee scale and if they offered treatment at no charge to clients who could not pay.
" The proportions of all facilities reporting acceptance of specific payment options were:
" Cash or self-payment 90 percent
" Private health insurance 65 percent
(Environmental Impact of Spraying) "Guio (2003), in his study in Samaniego, Nariño (Colombia), reports that aerial fumigation of poppy crops also affect household crops and alternative crops promoted by UNODC. Intensification of fumigation has lead to an increase in complaints to the Defensoria del Pueblo regarding impacts on farmers' health, domestic animals, fishes and legal crops. Ortiz et al.
(State and Local Spending on Prisons) "In 2003, 7.2% of total State and local expenditures was for justice activities – 3% for police protection, 2.6% for corrections, and 1.5% for judicial and legal services (figure 3).
"By comparison, 29% of State and local government spending went to education, 14% to public welfare, 7% to health and hospitals, and 4% to interest on debt."
"After peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 U.S. adult residents in 2007, the correctional supervision rate trended downward, falling to a low of 2,710 per 100,000 by yearend 2015 (table 4). The drop in the correctional supervision rate was attributed equally to the decline in the U.S. correctional population and the increase in the U.S. adult resident population. By yearend 2015, the correctional supervision rate fell to the lowest rate since 1994 (2,650 per 100,000), when about 1.6 million fewer persons were supervised by U.S. adult correctional systems (not shown).
Prevalence of Drugs Other Than Cannabis Among Young People in Belgium: "Results of the VAD school survey 2011-2012 show that the use of illicit psychoactive substances other than cannabis was rather limited in the population of school students (Melis, 2013). In the whole school population, only the older students mentioned ever use of these substances: 4.4% of the 15-16 year old students and 7.7% of the 17-18 year old students. The highest lifetime prevalence among the oldest school students (17-18y) of the Flemish Community were reported for ecstasy (3.8%), hallucinogens (3.5%), amphetamines (3.4%) and cocaine (2.5%). A lifetime prevalence of heroin use was found to be about only 0.4% among the oldest school students (Melis, 2013).
Sec. 844. Penalties for simple possession of Controlled Substances in the United States
(a) Unlawful acts; penalties
It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly or intentionally to possess a controlled substance unless such substance was obtained directly, or pursuant to a valid prescription or order, from a practitioner, while cting in the course of his professional practice, or except as otherwise authorized by this subchapter or subchapter II of this chapter."
"Initial schedules of controlled substances Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until amended (FOOTNOTE 1) pursuant to section 811 of this title, consist of the following drugs or other substances:"
(b): (10) Heroin
(c): (2) 5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine [MDMA]. (8) Ibogaine. (9) Lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD] . (10) Marihuana [marijuana, cannabis]. (11) Mescaline. (12) Peyote. (15) Psilocybin. (16) Psilocyn. (17) Tetrahydrocannabinols.
Sec. 3: Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)