(drug testing - impairment by drug) "The observations reported here, combined with past reports, indicate that diphenhydramine clearly impairs driving performance .... This study demonstrates that the firstgeneration antihistamine diphenhydramine may have an even greater impact than does alcohol on the complex task of operating an automobile."
(Alcohol Use Among US Youth, 2014)
(History of Alcohol Prohibition) "By all estimates, the Eighteenth Amendment was a costly blunder. Between 1920 and 1930, the federal government spent an average of twenty-one million dollars enforcing the Volstead Act.12 [the National Prohibition Act - enabling legislation for the 18th Amendment] During the same period, the United States lost an estimated $1.25 billion in potential tax revenues annually.13 In spite of the resources consumed by Alcohol Prohibition, it affected only one segment of the nation.
(Medications to Treat Alcohol Addiction) "VIVITROL was approved in 2006 by the FDA as an extended-release formulation of naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence in patients who are able to abstain from alcohol in an outpatient setting prior to initiation of treatment. VIVITROL is administered by intramuscular (IM) injection once per month."
(Alcohol Toxicity) "Alcohol thus ranks at the dangerous end of the toxicity spectrum. So despite the fact that about 75 percent of all adults in the United States enjoy an occasional drink, it must be remembered that alcohol is quite toxic. Indeed, if alcohol were a newly formulated beverage, its high toxicity and addiction potential would surely prevent it from being marketed as a food or drug."
(Effects of Maternal Alcohol Use) "Alcohol is a potent teratogen with a range of negative outcomes to the fetus, including low birthweight, cognitive deficiencies, and fetal alcohol disorders.15"
(Admissions to Treatment for Primary Alcohol Abuse Alone, in the US, 2012)
" Admissions for abuse of alcohol alone, with no secondary drug abuse, represented 21 percent of TEDS admissions aged 12 and older in 2012 [Table 1.1b].
" The average age at admission among admissions for alcohol only was 41 years. The average age at admission for alcohol with secondary drug was 37 years [Table 2.1a]. Admission for alcohol only or with secondary drug was the most likely reason for admissions aged 30 and older [Table 2.1b].
(Alcohol Prevalence Among US Adolescents, 2013)
(Comparison of Lethal Dose Versus Recreational Dose for Alcohol Compared With Other Drugs) "The lethal dose of alcohol divided by a typical recreational dose (safety ratio) is 10, which places it closer to heroin (6), and GHB (8) in terms of danger from overdose, than MDMA ('Ecstasy' – 16), and considerably more dangerous than LSD (1000) or cannabis (>1000)."