(Association of Alcohol Use with Tobacco and Other Substance Use in the US, 2013)
(Prevalence of Current Alcohol Use, Binge Drinking, and Heavy Drinking in the US, 2013)
" Slightly more than half (52.2 percent) of Americans aged 12 or older reported being current drinkers of alcohol in the 2013 survey, which was similar to the rate in 2012 (52.1 percent). This translates to an estimated 136.9 million current drinkers in 2013.
(Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome) "Withdrawal: A continuum of symptoms and signs of CNS (including autonomic) hyperactivity may accompany cessation of alcohol intake.
"A mild withdrawal syndrome includes tremor, weakness, headache, sweating, hyperreflexia, and GI symptoms. Symptoms usually begin within about 6 h of cessation. Some patients have generalized tonic-clonic seizures (called alcoholic epilepsy, or rum fits) but usually not > 2 in short succession.
(Alcohol Overdose) "Toxicity or overdose: In alcohol-naive people, a BAC of 300 to 400 mg/dL often causes unconsciousness, and a BAC ? 400 mg/dL may be fatal. Sudden death due to respiratory depression or arrhythmias may occur, especially when large quantities are drunk rapidly. This problem is emerging in US colleges but has been known in other countries where it is more common. Other common effects include hypotension and hypoglycemia.
(Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths in the US) "Our estimate of 19,500 alcohol-related cancer deaths is greater than the total number of deaths from some types of cancer that receive much more prominent attention, such as melanoma or ovarian cancer,36 and it amounted to more than two thirds of all prostate cancer deaths in 2009.36 Reducing alcohol consumption is an important and underemphasized cancer prevention strategy, yet receives surprisingly little attention among public health, medical, cancer, advocacy, and other organizations in the Unit
(Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in the US) "Overall, we found that alcohol use accounted for approximately 3.5% of all cancer deaths, or about 19 500 persons, in 2009. It was a prominent cause of premature loss of life, with each alcohol-attributable cancer death resulting in about 18 years of potential life lost.
(Prevalence of Alcohol Use Among Youth In Germany) "According to the findings of the current DAS (BZgA 2012a) the proportion of 12-17 year old adolescents who have drunk alcohol within the 30 days prior to the survey is 42.0% (30-day prevalence), 14.2% of this age group drink alcohol regularly (i.e. at least once a week), 15.2% of adolescents have drunk five glasses of alcohol one after the other at a drinking occasion at least once in the last 30 days (binge drinking) and 3.7% at least four times (frequent binge drinking).
(Prevalence of Alcohol Use in Spain 2011) "Drinking alcoholic beverages is spread throughout practically all of Spain’s society. Thus, in 2011, a total of 90.9% of Spain’s population within the 15-64 age range had drunk an alcoholic beverage at some time in their lives, 76.6% of the population having admitted drinking alcoholic beverages sometime within the last 12 months and 62.3% having done so within the last 30 days.
(Feasibility of DRUID Approach and of 0.5g/L BAC Risk Threshold) "Any threshold discussion should address the question if the DRUID approach to determine risk threshold as equivalents to 0.5g/L alcohol is feasible. From a scientific point of view it can only be justified to accept the same risk for all psychoactive substances (including alcohol). From a political point of view the determination of risk thresholds as equivalents to 0.5g/L alcohol might be questionable, because a BAC of 0.5g/L is not a legal limit in all European countries.