Community Epidemiology Working Group Indicators Show Rise of Methamphetamine Use in the US

"Increases in methamphetamine indicators reported in 2012 continued into 2013. These increases reversed a mostly declining trend since 2007. All CEWG area representatives reported increasing, stable, or mixed indicators in 2013, compared with 2012. Twelve of 19 CEWG area representatives reported increasing methamphetamine indicators in the 2013 reporting period; these were Atlanta, Cincinnati, Denver/Colorado, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, St. Louis, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, South Florida/Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, and Texas.

Many Youth Discontinue Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs by the Time They Leave High School

"Among 12th graders, the highest noncontinuation rate is observed for inhalants (69%), followed by MDMA (ecstasy, Molly) and crystal methamphetamine (ice) (both at 47%). Many inhalants are used primarily at a younger age, and use is often not continued into 12th grade. The rank ordering for noncontinuation of other drugs is as follows: methamphetamine, heroin, crack, narcotics other than heroin, tranquilizers, amphetamines, steroids, sedatives (barbiturates), cocaine, cocaine other than crack, hallucinogens, and LSD (all between 34% and 44%).

Drug Overdose Deaths in the US, Polydrug Use, and Involvement of Prescription Pharmaceutical Drugs

"Of the 36,667 drug overdose deaths with at least one mention of a specific drug, 52% mentioned only one specific drug (18,931 deaths), 26% mentioned two (9,351 deaths), 12% mentioned three (4,521 deaths), 6% mentioned four (2,041 deaths), and 5% mentioned five or more (1,823 deaths). Among drug overdose deaths with at least one mention of a specific drug, the average number of specific drugs mentioned was 1.9.

Estimated Prevalence of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Use in the EU

"It is estimated that 12.3 million adults in the European Union (aged 15-64), or 3.7% of this age group, have used amphetamines at least once in their lifetime. Figures from the 26 countries that report a survey between 2014 and 2018 suggest that 1.4 million (1.2%) young adults (aged 15-34) used amphetamines during the last year, with national prevalence estimates ranging from zero in Portugal to 3% in Finland (Figure 13). The available data suggest that over the longer term, prevalence levels have been relatively stable in most countries.

Uses of Amphetamines

"Amphetamines are CNS stimulants and are used both medicinally and as drugs of abuse. Amphetamines are generally taken recreationally and to enhance performance (e.g., truck drivers staying awake). Ecstasy falls within this category, and as a methylated amphetamine derivative it also has hallucinogenic properties. Amphetamines have been associated with crash occurrence and could logically be associated with driving impairment both in the stimulation and withdrawal stages; in the latter case especially as the drug interacts with fatigue."

Perceived Availability of Drugs Among Young People in the US

"• In 2017, 46% of 8th graders and 63% of 10th graders thought that cigarettes would be fairly easy or very easy for them to get if they wanted some. In 2017 for the first time we asked about availability of cigarettes among 12th graders; 78% reported they would be fairly easy or very easy to get. A growing interest among state and local governments to increase the minimum age to 21 for the purchase of tobacco products suggests that availability may decrease for this age group in the coming years.

Initiation of Methamphetamine Use in the US

"In 2018, 205,000 people aged 12 or older initiated methamphetamine use in the past year (Figures 26 and 30), which averages to about 560 people per day who initiated methamphetamine use (Table A.3A). The number of past year initiates in 2018 for methamphetamine use was similar to the numbers in 2015 to 2017. In 2018, an estimated 31,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 used methamphetamine for the first time in the past year (Figure 30). The number of adolescents in 2018 who were methamphetamine initiates was similar to the numbers in 2015 to 2017.