Cocaine & Crack

Cocaine and Crack

Drug Overdose Deaths in the US Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants On the Rise

"Deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants have increased in the United States in recent years; among 70,237 drug overdose deaths in 2017, nearly a third (23,139 [32.9%]) involved cocaine, psychostimulants, or both. From 2016 to 2017, death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants each increased by approximately one third, and increases occurred across all demographic groups, Census regions, and in several states. In 2017, nearly three fourths of cocaine-involved and roughly one half of psychostimulant-involved overdose deaths, respectively, involved at least one opioid.

Estimated Prevalence and Trends in Use of Cocaine Including Crack in the US

"In 2016, the estimate of about 1.9 million people aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 15) included about 432,000 current users of crack. The numbers correspond to about 0.7 percent of the population aged 12 or older who were current users of cocaine (Figure 22) and 0.2 percent who were current users of crack (Table A.7B in Appendix A). The 2016 estimate for current cocaine use was similar to the estimates in most years between 2007 and 2015, but it was lower than the estimates in 2002 to 2006.

Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cocaine Use and Availability in the US, 2013

(Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cocaine Use and Availability in the US, 2013) "Cocaine continued to be reported as a drug of concern in CEWG areas in all four regions of the United States. The impact of cocaine abuse continued to be reported by area representatives as high in Baltimore/Maryland/Washington, DC; Boston; Chicago; New York City; Philadelphia; and the South Florida/Miami-Dade and Broward Counties area. However, the decline in cocaine indicators reported at recent CEWG meetings continued to be observed by many area representatives.

Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013

(Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013)
"• In 2013, there were 601,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used cocaine for the first time within the past 12 months; this averages to approximately 1,600 initiates per day. This estimate was similar to the number in 2008 to 2012 (ranging from 623,000 to 724,000). The annual number of cocaine initiates in 2013 was lower than the estimates from 2002 through 2007 (ranging from 0.9 million to 1.0 million).

Cocaine - History of Coca

(History of Coca) "Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the coca leaf has been cultivated and used by the indigenous people of the Andes region for at least 4,000-5,000 years while other estimates put this as far back as 20,000 years. By the time of the Spanish colonial conquest, coca use extended all the way from what is today Costa Rica and Venezuela, through the Brazilian Amazon (coca’s place of origin) and on down to Paraguay, northern Argentina and Chile."

Traditional Uses of the Coca Leaf

(Traditional Uses of the Coca Leaf) "Coca has traditionally been used in one of two ways: either as a chew or in coca tea.45 Coca leaves contain many nutrients, including vitamins A and B, phosphorus, and iron.46 In high-altitude communities where green vegetables are scarce, the extra nutrients provided by coca leaves are often much needed.47 Coca is also widely used to diminish the effects of the decreased oxygen at high altitudes, as any visitor to an Andean city will discover.48 Much like coffee, coca is a mild stimulant

History of Coca

(History of Coca) "Modern archaeology suggests that descendants of nomadic Siberian people may have established communities in the Andes Mountains as early as 10,000 B.C.E.37 Aymara-speaking tribes migrated to the Bolivian altiplano38 around 700 B.C.E, and sometime after 700 B.C.E, Andean people began growing coca in the altiplano.39 Before the Spanish conquest, Indians of eastern Bolivia grew coca for tea, chewing, and ritual use."

History of Cocaine's Use as Anaesthetic

(History of Cocaine's Use as Anaesthetic) "One of the main properties of the coca leaf, which has been and continues to be used industrially, is its medical potential as an anaesthetic and analgesic. This characteristic of cocaine, which was part of ancestral practices and knowledge in the Andean-Amazon region, came to light in the 1880s and led to a revolution in medical science, particularly in surgery. As a local anaesthetic, it offered an alternative for operations that had previously been painful and hazardous.