Cocaine & Crack

Cocaine and Crack

Drug Overdose Deaths In the US Involving Cocaine 2009 Through 2018

"• Throughout the study period, the rates of drug overdose deaths involving cocaine were highest for the non-Hispanic black population, followed by non-Hispanic white and the Hispanic population (Figure 3).

"• In 2018, the rate of drug overdose deaths involving cocaine in the non-Hispanic black population (9.0 per 100,000) was nearly twice that of the non-Hispanic white population (4.6) and three times that of the Hispanic population (3.0).

Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine in the US 2009 Through 2018

"• In 2018, there were 14,666 drug overdose deaths involving cocaine in the United States for an age-adjusted rate of 4.5 per 100,000 standard population (Figure 1)."

"• The age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths involving cocaine remained stable from 2009 through 2013 ranging from 1.3 to 1.6 per 100,000, then increased on average by 27% per year from 2013 through 2018.

Drug Overdose Deaths in the US Involving Cocaine and Psychostimulants On the Rise

"Deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants have increased in the United States in recent years; among 70,237 drug overdose deaths in 2017, nearly a third (23,139 [32.9%]) involved cocaine, psychostimulants, or both. From 2016 to 2017, death rates involving cocaine and psychostimulants each increased by approximately one third, and increases occurred across all demographic groups, Census regions, and in several states. In 2017, nearly three fourths of cocaine-involved and roughly one half of psychostimulant-involved overdose deaths, respectively, involved at least one opioid.

Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cocaine Use and Availability in the US, 2013

(Community Epidemiology Working Group Assessment of Cocaine Use and Availability in the US, 2013) "Cocaine continued to be reported as a drug of concern in CEWG areas in all four regions of the United States. The impact of cocaine abuse continued to be reported by area representatives as high in Baltimore/Maryland/Washington, DC; Boston; Chicago; New York City; Philadelphia; and the South Florida/Miami-Dade and Broward Counties area. However, the decline in cocaine indicators reported at recent CEWG meetings continued to be observed by many area representatives.

Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013

(Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013)
"• In 2013, there were 601,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used cocaine for the first time within the past 12 months; this averages to approximately 1,600 initiates per day. This estimate was similar to the number in 2008 to 2012 (ranging from 623,000 to 724,000). The annual number of cocaine initiates in 2013 was lower than the estimates from 2002 through 2007 (ranging from 0.9 million to 1.0 million).

Cocaine - History of Coca

(History of Coca) "Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the coca leaf has been cultivated and used by the indigenous people of the Andes region for at least 4,000-5,000 years while other estimates put this as far back as 20,000 years. By the time of the Spanish colonial conquest, coca use extended all the way from what is today Costa Rica and Venezuela, through the Brazilian Amazon (coca’s place of origin) and on down to Paraguay, northern Argentina and Chile."

Traditional Uses of the Coca Leaf

(Traditional Uses of the Coca Leaf) "Coca has traditionally been used in one of two ways: either as a chew or in coca tea.45 Coca leaves contain many nutrients, including vitamins A and B, phosphorus, and iron.46 In high-altitude communities where green vegetables are scarce, the extra nutrients provided by coca leaves are often much needed.47 Coca is also widely used to diminish the effects of the decreased oxygen at high altitudes, as any visitor to an Andean city will discover.48 Much like coffee, coca is a mild stimulant