Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

Global Manufacture

(Global Manufacture) "The number of 'ecstasy' laboratories seized worldwide declined from 52 in 2009 to 44 laboratories in 2010. Countries reporting 'ecstasy' manufacture in 2010 (by number of laboratories seized) were Australia (17), Canada (13), Indonesia (12), Malaysia (1) and Argentina (1). Despite a decline in reported 'ecstasy' manufacture, it is worth noting that some countries, such as Australia and Indonesia, reported an increase in the manufacturing capability or size of laboratories.

MDMA-Involved Mortality, 2000

(MDMA-Involved Mortality, 2000) "Deaths associated with club drugs other than methamphetamine are quite rare in DAWN data.
"• Cumulatively, 2,601 deaths associated with methamphetamine abuse, 46 deaths associated with Ketamine, and 27 with MDMA were reported by participating medical examiners over the 5-year period from 1994 to 1998.
"• There were no notable increases in deaths involving club drugs from 1994 to 1998."

Effects of MDMA ("Ecstasy")

(Effects of MDMA ("Ecstasy")) "MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is an amphetamine analog with stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
"MDMA acts primarily on neurons that produce and release serotonin, but it also affects dopaminergic neurons. MDMA is usually taken as a pill; effects begin 30 to 60 min after ingestion and typically last 4 to 6 h. MDMA is often used at dance clubs, concerts, and rave parties.
"Symptoms and Signs

MDMA-Involved Mortality, 1998

(MDMA-Involved Mortality, 1998) The Drug Abuse Warning Network estimates that ecstasy was involved in -- though not necessarily the cause of -- nine deaths in 1998. According to DAWN's 2002 mortality report: "The DAWN metropolitan area profiles include information on 'club drugs' as a group, combining all mentions of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy), Ketamine, gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) and its precursor gamma butyrolactone (GBL), and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol).