(Cocaine Powder, Freebase, and Crack) "Cocaine is derived from the coca plant, which, upon consumption, anesthetizes and stimulates the central nervous system.75 The coca plant can be chewed to induce a high and is difficult to obtain in the United States, as cocaine is usually exported from South America in powder form.76
(History of Crack) "Most Americans first learned about crack cocaine through media stories, which usually disclosed tragic details of public figures’ addictions.
("Crack Baby" Myth) "In the final analysis, the notion of the 'crack baby' is a myth. So-called 'cocaine babies' and 'crack babies' are more likely suffering from their mothers’ multiple drug use (particularly alcohol), and/or are 'poverty babies' suffering from a lack of medical care and poor nutrition."
(Legal Use of Cocaine in the US) "Once the cocaine has been legally produced from the coca leaf, it is exported to various countries for medicinal use, basically as a topical anesthetic (applied to the surface, not injected, only treating a particular area). In the United States the crystalline powder is imported to pharmaceutical companies who process and package the cocaine for medical use.
(Cocaine Supply Shortages) "Cocaine shortages have persisted in many U.S. drug markets since early 2007, primarily because of decreased cocaine production in Colombia but also because of increased worldwide demand for cocaine, especially in Europe; high cocaine seizure levels that continued through 2009; and enhanced GOM counterdrug efforts. These factors most likely resulted in decreased amounts of cocaine being transported from Colombia to the U.S.–Mexico border for subsequent smuggling into the United States."
(Compensatory Effects of Environmental Intervention) "After controlling for confounding variables, prenatal cocaine exposure was not associated with lower full-scale, verbal, or performance IQ scores at age 4 years, but did predict significant deficits in specific cognitive skills underlying intellectual functioning and attenuated the incidence of IQ scores above the normative mean, even for children in better home environments.
(Estimated Prevalence of Crack Use in England) "Among the general population, use of powder cocaine is far more common than use of crack cocaine. Although crack cocaine use is relatively rare, it is associated with very problematic use and drug-related crime, predominantly among those also using opioids. Due to the often chaotic nature of users’ lives, it is likely that household surveys underestimate crack use.
US Code violations for cocaine/crack cocaine and possible sentences:
Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER 13 - DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
SUBCHAPTER I - CONTROL AND ENFORCEMENT
Part D - Offenses and Penalties
Except as otherwise provided in section 849, 859, 860, or 861 of this title, any person who violates subsection (a) of this section shall be sentenced as follows:
"(ii) 5 kilograms or more of a mixture or substance containing a detectable amount of—
(Relief from Mandatory Minimum Penalties, by Race and Gender) "In fiscal year 2010, more than half (54.4%, n=8,619) of drug offenders convicted of an offense carrying a mandatory minimum penalty received relief from the mandatory minimum penalty. Approximately one quarter (26.1%, n=4,136) of the drug offenders received relief through operation of the safety valve alone.