Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013

(Initiation of Cocaine or Crack Use in the US, 2013)
"• In 2013, there were 601,000 persons aged 12 or older who had used cocaine for the first time within the past 12 months; this averages to approximately 1,600 initiates per day. This estimate was similar to the number in 2008 to 2012 (ranging from 623,000 to 724,000). The annual number of cocaine initiates in 2013 was lower than the estimates from 2002 through 2007 (ranging from 0.9 million to 1.0 million).

Estimated Prevalence of Crack and Cocaine Use by Young People in the US

(Estimated Prevalence of Crack and Cocaine Use by Young People in the US)
"Crack, a form of cocaine that comes in small chunks or 'rocks,' can be smoked to produce a rapid and intense but short-lasting high. In 2015 it had lifetime prevalence levels of under 2% in all three grade levels: 1.0% for 8th, 1.1% for 10th, and 1.7% for 12th graders.

Safe Smoking Devices

(Safe Smoking Devices) "Provision of specific harm-reduction programmes for crack cocaine smokers in Europe is limited. Some drug consumption facilities in three countries (Germany, Spain,
Netherlands) provide facilities for inhalation of drugs, including crack cocaine. Hygienic inhalation devices
including clean crack pipes or ‘crack kits’ (glass stem with mouth piece, metal screen, lip balm and hand wipes)

International Comparisons of Cocaine Prevalence

(International Comparisons of Cocaine Prevalence) "Compared with some other parts of the world for which reliable data exist, the estimated last year prevalence of cocaine use among young adults in Europe (2.1%) is below the levels reported for young adults in Australia (4.8 %) and the United States (4.0% among 16- to 34-year-olds), but close to that reported for Canada (1.8%). Two European countries, Spain (4.4%) and the United Kingdom (4.2%), report figures similar to those of Australia and the United States (Figure 9)."

Cocaine - History of Coca

(History of Coca) "Archaeological evidence has confirmed that the coca leaf has been cultivated and used by the indigenous people of the Andes region for at least 4,000-5,000 years while other estimates put this as far back as 20,000 years. By the time of the Spanish colonial conquest, coca use extended all the way from what is today Costa Rica and Venezuela, through the Brazilian Amazon (coca’s place of origin) and on down to Paraguay, northern Argentina and Chile."

Traditional Uses of the Coca Leaf

(Traditional Uses of the Coca Leaf) "Coca has traditionally been used in one of two ways: either as a chew or in coca tea.45 Coca leaves contain many nutrients, including vitamins A and B, phosphorus, and iron.46 In high-altitude communities where green vegetables are scarce, the extra nutrients provided by coca leaves are often much needed.47 Coca is also widely used to diminish the effects of the decreased oxygen at high altitudes, as any visitor to an Andean city will discover.48 Much like coffee, coca is a mild stimulant

history - coca

(history - coca) "When the Spanish first conquered the Incas in the sixteenth century, there was strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eradicate coca because of its important non-Christian meanings and symbolism for the indigenous Andean religions. Coca has long been used to divine the future, and as a sacred offering to the mother earth and ancestral deities recognized by native Andeans. In 1551 the Bishop of Cuzco imposed capital punishment for consuming the leaf, as it represented in his eyes an "agent of the Devil".

History of Coca

(History of Coca) "Modern archaeology suggests that descendants of nomadic Siberian people may have established communities in the Andes Mountains as early as 10,000 B.C.E.37 Aymara-speaking tribes migrated to the Bolivian altiplano38 around 700 B.C.E, and sometime after 700 B.C.E, Andean people began growing coca in the altiplano.39 Before the Spanish conquest, Indians of eastern Bolivia grew coca for tea, chewing, and ritual use."