Cannabinoids and the Chemical Composition of Cannabis

(Cannabinoids and the Chemical Composition of Cannabis) "Essentially a herbal cannabinoid drug, the resin-secreting flowers of select varietals of the female cannabis plant contain approximately 6 dozen of different phytocannabinoids or plant-derived cannabinoids; these compounds are generally classified structurally as terpenophenolics with a 21-carbon molecular scaffold.24 Other compounds, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, and phytosterols, which are common to many other botanicals, are also produced by cannabis and have some demonstrated pharmacologic prop

Estimated Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Young Adults in the EU

(Estimated Prevalence of Cannabis Use Among Young Adults in the EU) "An estimated 16.6 million young Europeans (aged 15–34), or 13.3 % of this age group, used cannabis in the last year, with 9.6 million of these aged 15–24 (16.4 % of this age group). Among young people using cannabis in the last year, the ratio of males to females is two to one.

Cannabis Offenses in the EU

(Cannabis Offenses in the EU) "Cannabis continues to be the illicit drug most often mentioned in reported drug law offences in Europe (34). In the majority of European countries, offences involving cannabis accounted for between 50% and 90% of reported drug law offences in 2010. Offences related to other drugs exceeded those related to cannabis in only four countries: the Czech Republic and Latvia with methamphetamine (54% and 34%); and Lithuania and Malta with heroin (34% and 30%).

Odds of Arrest and Incarceration for Marijuana Offenses in California

(Odds of Arrest and Incarceration for Marijuana Offenses in California) "Compared to Non-blacks, California’s African-American population are 4 times more likely to be arrested for marijuana, 12 times more likely to be imprisoned for a marijuana felony arrest, and 3 times more likely to be imprisoned per marijuana possession arrest. Overall, as Figure 3 illustrates, these disparities accumulate to 10 times’ greater odds of an African-American being imprisoned for marijuana than other racial/ethnic groups."

history - use of paraquat to eradicate marijuana

(history - use of paraquat to eradicate marijuana) "In the 1970s, Mexican cannabis plantations were sprayed with the herbicide paraquat. Inhalation of toxic amounts of this material could lead to severe lung damage, and some instances of acute toxicity have occurred.[69] Up to 2mg paraquat per gram was detected on seized marijuana samples in the USA.[70] Ironically, the ensuing panic among recreational cannabis users in the US, popularly dubbed "paraquat fever", was a stimulus to the US to look into alternative eradication strategies, including fungi.[71]"

Inadequate or Inconsistent Data

(Inadequate or Inconsistent Data) "Since marijuana crosses the placenta, it is reasonable to think that it may have a direct, adverse effect on the fetal brain or on fetal growth, but the small number of studies performed to date have failed to identify major birth defects or a consistent effect on neurobehavioral function. Results regarding the relationship of prenatal marijuana exposure to lowered birth weight are inconsistent."

Endocannabinoids and Neonatal Milk Suckling Response

(Endocannabinoids and Neonatal Milk Suckling Response) "Cannabinoids are known to enhance appetite by activating cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. This phenomenon is exploited to combat cachexia and loss of appetite in cancer and AIDS patients. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) is present in milk. Evidence is presented supporting a critical role for CB1 receptors in survival of mouse pups. Thus neonates do not gain weight and die within the first week of life when their receptors are blocked. This is due apparently, to an inability to ingest maternal milk.

Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Cognitive Development

(Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Cognitive Development) "The failure to find an association between prenatal marijuana exposure and a variety of cognitive outcomes persisted in the OPPS sample until the offspring were 4 years of age. At 2, although there was a negative association with language comprehension, this relationship did not retain significance when the home environment was statistically controlled (Fried and Watkinson 1988).