(Effectiveness of Student Drug Testing Compared With Positive School Climate) "The current research reinforces previous conclusions that SDT is a relatively ineffective drug-prevention policy (Goldberg et al., 2007; Sznitman, 2013a; Yamaguchi et al., 2003). On the other hand, interventions that improve school climate may have greater efficacy.
Student drug testing
(Effectiveness of Student Drug Testing at Preventing Drug Use) "The 'factual' assertion that student drug testing is an effective deterrent has been proved unsupportable, and indeed false, by empirical and anecdotal evidence. This evidence reveals that student drug testing does not change student drug usage in any way and may, instead, cause more harm than good to the educational function. Students escape detection by changing their drug of choice or changing the time when they indulge. They find ways to mask or change the test results, sometimes dangerously so.
(Prevalence of School Drug Testing Programs in the US) "As a matter of fact, the number of schools and school districts actually implementing drug-testing programs is relatively small although not insignificant. From 1998 through 2001, the percentage ranged from just over 14% of schools, peaking at just over 23% in 2000 then down to approximately 16% in 2001.50 According to a 2006 survey, approximately 12% of the nation’s school districts had testing programs with an additional 10% considering them.51"
(Effectiveness of Testing as a Deterrent) "There are still no significant differences in marijuana use or the use of other illicit drugs as a function of whether or not the school has (a) drug testing of any kind, (b) drug testing of students based on cause or suspicion, or (c) drug testing of athletes. Nor is there evidence that the heavy drug-using segment of the student population, specifically, is deterred from using marijuana or other illicit drugs by random or for-cause testing."
(Cost of Drug Testing for Schools in the US) "Drug testing, particularly on a per student basis, can be relatively costly for schools. The cost of drug tests ranges depending on the quality of the test. A standard drug test used in some high schools can range from $14 to $30 per test (Volpert & Tremaine, 1997). A standard drug test detects marijuana, tobacco, cocaine, heroin, opiates, amphetamines, barbiturates, and tranquilizers.
(Federal Evaluation of Effectiveness of Mandatory-Random Student Drug Testing (MRSDT) Programs) "To help assess the effects of school-based random drug testing programs, the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES) contracted with RMC Research Corporation and Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an experimental evaluation of the MRSDT programs in 36 high schools within seven districts that received OSDFS [Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools] grants in 2006.
"The study’s key findings indicate that:
(School Drug Testing and Prevention of Use by Students) "Does drug testing prevent or inhibit student drug use?
(Results of Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) Study) "No DAT [Drug and Alcohol Testing] deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an effective deterrent for school-based athletes."
(Drug Testing as Predictor of Drug Use) "Similar to results for marijuana use, drug testing of any kind and drug testing for cause and suspicion were not significant predictors for use of other illicit drugs among students in grades eight, 10, and 12. Within the high school subsamples, use of illicit drugs among high school male athletes and current marijuana users was not significantly different based on drug testing at the school.