New Psychoactive Substances (NPS)

New or novel psychoactive substances and "legal highs," including synthetic cannabinoids, mephedrone, ketamine, and more

Reported Adverse Effects of Piperazines

(Reported Adverse Effects of Piperazines) "Information on the toxicological aspects of many piperazines listed in this group remain limited. Further research is required to provide evidence on short and long term health-effects associated with the use of these substances. Current knowledge comes from user reports, studies in animals, limited human studies, and clinical observations.

Description of Piperazines

(Description of Piperazines) "Piperazines are frequently sold as ‘ecstasy’. Some of the generic names for these substances include, ‘pep pills’, ‘social tonics’ or simply ‘party pills’. The latter term was used to commercialize BZP in New Zealand.64 Other street names include Jax, A2, Benny Bear, Flying Angel, Legal E or Legal X, and Pep X, Pep Love or Nemesis.65 MCPP is known as 3CPP, 3C1-PP or CPP.

Reported Adverse Effects of Phenethylamines

(Reported Adverse Effects of Phenethylamines) "Phenethylamines included in the ‘D series’ are described to be longer lasting, more potent and reportedly more liable to induce vasoconstriction than other members of the phenethylamine family.49 Reported adverse effects associated with the use of the ‘D series’ derivatives include agitation, tachycardia, mydriasis, hallucinations, severe limb ischemia, seizures, liver and renal failure.50 Bromo-Dragonfly has also been associated with a number of deaths in Scandinavia.51 A case of

Description of Phenethylamines

(Description of Phenethylamines) "Street names for some phenethylamines include ‘Europa’ for 2C-E; ‘4-FMP’, ‘para-fluoroamphetamine’, ‘RDJ’ for 4-FA; and ‘4-MMA’, ‘Methyl-MA’ for PMMA. Phenethylamines are usually available in form of pills, but FLY compounds are commonly sold in powder form, while oral doses (on a slip of blotter paper) are usually available for ‘D substances’. Ingestion is the most common route of administration of phenethylamines."

Reported Adverse Effects and Toxicity of Synthetic Cathinones

(Reported Adverse Effects and Toxicity of Synthetic Cathinones) "Few reports on the toxicity of synthetic cathinones exist to date. Much of the current knowledge on health-related effects comes from user reports and clinical observations. Further research is needed to provide evidence of short and long-term health risks and the addiction potential associated with the use of these substances.

Description of Synthetic Cathinones

(Description of Synthetic Cathinones) "Synthetic cathinones are frequently found in products sold as ‘research chemicals’, ‘plant food’, ‘bath salts’ or ‘glass cleaner’ and are usually sold in powder, pill or capsule form. Mephedrone (‘m-cat’, ‘meph’, ‘drone’ or ‘miaow’) and methylone (‘explosion’ or ‘top cat’) are usually available as white or brown powders or in the form of pills that are often sold as ‘ecstasy’. Most synthetic derivatives are ingested but may be injected.

Reported Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids

(Reported Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids) "While side effects of cannabis are well documented,7 data on human toxicity related to the use of synthetic cannabinoids remains limited. As with other NPS, products sold as synthetic cannabinoids often contain several chemicals in different concentrations, making it very difficult to determine substance-specific effects. Available knowledge on the toxicity of these compounds comes from scientific reports and clinical observations.

Description of Ketamine

(Description of Ketamine) "Ketamine and phencyclidine have similar modes of action, affecting a range of central neurotransmitters. Ketamine is frequently sold as ‘ecstasy’ in illicit ATS [Amphetamine-Type Stimulants] markets. Street names for ketamine include ‘K’, ‘special K’, ‘kit kat’, ‘tac’, ‘tic’, ‘cat valium’, ‘cat tranquilizer’, ‘vitamin K’, ‘ket’, ‘super K’.38

Description of Salvia and Its Effects

(Description of Salvia and Its Effects) "Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive plant that can induce dissociative effects and is a potent producer of visual and other hallucinatory experiences. By mass, salvinorin A, the psychoactive substance in the plant, appears to be the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogen. Its native habitat is the cloud forests in Mexico.