Causes of Death

Information and data on mortality and drug use, including death rates and overdoses. Contains data on the number of deaths in the United States from various causes, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, with particular attention to legal and illegal opioids. Also contains information on mortality, drugs, drug overdose, and on the use of Naloxone to reverse opiate overdoses. Sources include official mortality reports from Centers for Disease Control and peer-reviewed journal articles.

MDMA Mortality Risk

(MDMA Mortality Risk) "Schifano et al. (2010) analysed the government data on recreational stimulant deaths in the UK between 1997 and 2007. Over this period, there were 832 deaths related to amphetamine or methamphetamine and 605 deaths related to Ecstasy/MDMA. Many were related to multiple-drug ingestion or ‘polydrug’ use. However, in the analysis of ‘mono-intoxication’ fatalities, Schifano et al. (2010) found that deaths following Ecstasy use were significantly more represented than deaths following amphetamine/methamphetamine use (p < 0.007)."

Role of Psychopharmaceuticals in Overdose Deaths

(Role of Psychopharmaceuticals in Overdose Deaths) "This analysis confirms the predominant role opioid analgesics play in pharmaceutical overdose deaths, either alone or in combination with other drugs. It also, however, highlights the frequent involvement of drugs typically prescribed for mental health conditions such as benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and antipsychotics in overdose deaths.

Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths in the US

(Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths in the US) "Our estimate of 19,500 alcohol-related cancer deaths is greater than the total number of deaths from some types of cancer that receive much more prominent attention, such as melanoma or ovarian cancer,36 and it amounted to more than two thirds of all prostate cancer deaths in 2009.36 Reducing alcohol consumption is an important and underemphasized cancer prevention strategy, yet receives surprisingly little attention among public health, medical, cancer, advocacy, and other organizations in the Unit

Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in the US

(Alcohol-Attributable Cancer Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in the US) "Overall, we found that alcohol use accounted for approximately 3.5% of all cancer deaths, or about 19 500 persons, in 2009. It was a prominent cause of premature loss of life, with each alcohol-attributable cancer death resulting in about 18 years of potential life lost.

Global Estimated Drug-Related Mortality, 2011

(Global Estimated Drug-Related Mortality, 2011) "UNODC estimates that there were between 102,000 and 247,000 drug-related deaths in 2011, corresponding to a mortality rate of between 22.3 and 54.0 deaths per million population aged 15-64. This represents between 0.54 per cent and 1.3 per cent of mortality from all causes globally among those aged 15-64.20 The extent of drug-related deaths has essentially remained unchanged globally and within regions."

Alcohol Mortality and Other Annual Costs in the US

(Alcohol Mortality and Other Annual Costs in the US) "Excessive alcohol use* accounted for an estimated average of 80,000 deaths and 2.3 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) in the United States each year during 2001–2005, and an estimated $223.5 billion in economic costs in 2006. Binge drinking accounted for more than half of those deaths, two thirds of the YPLL, and three quarters of the economic costs."

Drug Overdose Deaths in the US, 2008

(Drug Overdose Deaths in the US, 2008) "In 2008, a total of 36,450 deaths were attributed to drug overdose, a rate of 11.9 per 100,000 population (Table 1), among which a drug was specified in 27,153 (74.5%) deaths. One or more prescription drugs were involved in 20,044 (73.8%) of the 27,153 deaths, and OPR were involved in 14,800 (73.8%) of the 20,044 prescription drug overdose deaths."

Acetaminophen-Related Liver Injury

(Acetaminophen-Related Liver Injury)
"... acetaminophen-related liver injury led to approximately
• 56,000 emergency department visits (1993–1999),
• 26,000 hospitalizations (1990–1999), and
• 458 deaths (1996–1998).
"Of these cases, unintentional acetaminophen overdose was associated with
• 13,000 emergency department visits (1993–1999),
• 2189 hospitalizations (1990–1999), and
• 100 deaths (1996–1998) (71 FR 77314 at 77318)."