"County and city jails in the United States held 738,400 inmates at midyear 2018 (table 1), a decline of 6% from 785,500 inmates held in 2008. The midyear population remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2018. At midyear 2018, about one-third of jail inmates (248,500) were sentenced or awaiting sentencing on a conviction, while about two-thirds (490,000) were awaiting court action on a current charge or were held for other reasons.
"The increase in U.S. incarceration rates means that a sizable number of children experience parental incarceration. Between 5 million and 8 million children have had a resident parent (most often a father) incarcerated in jail, state prison, or federal prison, and this number excludes children with parents under other forms of correctional supervision such as probation or parole (Murphey & Cooper, 2015). A growing research literature conceptualizes parental incarceration as an adverse childhood experience (ACE) with considerable deleterious consequences for children's wellbeing (U.S.
"Although no amount of policy analysis can resolve disagreements about how much punishment drug offenses deserve, research does make clear that some strategies for reducing drug use and crime are more effective than others and that imprisonment ranks near the bottom of that list. And surveys have found strong public support for changing how states and the federal government respond to drug crimes.
"Between year-end 2015 and year-end 2016, the rate of imprisonment for black adults decreased 4% (from 1,670 per 100,000 in 2015 to 1,608 per 100,000 in 2016) (figure 2). The imprisonment rate declined 29% since 2006 (2,261 per 100,000). The rate for white adults decreased 2% between 2015 (281 per 100,000) and 2016 (274 per 100,000), and it declined 15% during the past decade (324 per 100,000 in 2006). The imprisonment rate for Hispanic adults decreased 1%, from 862 per 100,000 in 2015 to 856 in 2016.
"On December 31, 2016, an estimated 2,162,400 persons were either under the jurisdiction of state or federal prisons or in the custody of local jails—10,400 fewer persons than in 2015. By year-end 2016, the number of persons incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails fell to the lowest level observed since 2004 (2,136,600) (not shown).
" At year-end 2016, an estimated 7% of non-Hispanic white males in state and federal prison were ages 18 to 24, compared to 13% of non-Hispanic black males and 12% of Hispanic males.
" Sixteen percent of while male prisoners were age 55 or older, compared to 10% of black male and 8% of Hispanic male prisoners.
" Eight percent each of white and black female prisoners in 2015 were age 55 or older, compared to 5% of Hispanic female prisoners.
"At year-end 2016, the jail incarceration rate was 217 inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, which was similar to the rate of 215 per 100,000 at year-end 2015 (table 2). The incarceration rate for adults age 18 or older was 280 per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older at year-end 2016. Males (377 per 100,000 male U.S. residents) were incarcerated at a rate six times that of females (62 per 100,000 female U.S. residents).
"At year-end 2018, an estimated 1,465,200 prisoners were under state or federal jurisdiction. This was a decrease of more than 9% from 2009, when the U.S. prison population peaked at 1,615,500, and a decrease of 2% from the 1,489,200 prisoners in 2017 (table 1). State prisoners made up 88% of the total U.S. prison population at year-end 2018 and accounted for 87% of the decline in the total prison population from year-end 2017. Te number of federal prisoners fell by 3,200, from 183,100 in 2017 to 179,900 in 2018.
"After peaking at 3,210 offenders per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older in 2007, the correctional supervision rate trended downward, falling to a low of 2,640 per 100,000 by year-end 2016 (table 4). The percentage of adults supervised by U.S. correctional system was lower in 2016 than at any time since 1993 (2,550 per 100,000) (not shown). Both the change in the correctional population and change in the U.S population had an impact on the rate.
" Almost half of sentenced federal prisoners on September 30, 2017 (the most recent date for which federal offense data are available) were serving time for drug trafficking (tables 14 and 15).
" More than a third (38%, or 64,300) of federal prisoners were imprisoned for a public-order offense, including 17% (28,300) for a weapons offense and 7% (11,100) for an adjudicated immigration offense.