(Pain Contracts) "Another control strategy that has gained traction is opioid 'contracts' or 'treatment agreements' between health care providers and patients, under which medication use by highrisk patients is closely monitored. In a study of a primary are clinic’s use of such contracts, three-fifths of patients adhered to the agreement (with a median follow-up of 23 months) (Hariharan et al., 2006).
(US Department of Veterans Affairs, Medical Marijuana, and Pain Management) "If a Veteran obtains and uses medical marijuana in manner consistent with state law, testing positive for marijuana would not preclude the Veteran from receiving opioids for pain management in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) facility. The Veteran would need to inform his provider of the use of medical marijuana, and of any other non-VA prescribed medications he or she is taking to ensure that all medications, including opioids, are prescribed in a safe manner.
(Prevalence and Cost of Migraines) "Migraine headaches are a major public health problem affecting more than 28 million persons in this country.1 Nearly 25 percent of women and 9 percent of men experience disabling migraines.2,3 The impact of these headaches on patients and their families is tremendous, with many patients reporting frequent and significant disability.4 The economic burden of migraine headaches in the United States is also tremendous.
(Unrelieved Pain A Serious Health Problem In The US) "It is well-documented that unrelieved pain continues to be a serious public health problem for the general population in the United States.1-8 This issue is particularly salient for children,9-14 the elderly,15-19 people of racial and ethnic subgroups,20-24 people with developmental disabilities,25;26 people in the military or military veterans27-30 as well as for those with diseases such as cancer,31-36 HIV/AIDS,37-40 or sickle
(Law Enforcement's "Chilling Effect" on Pain Treatment) "The under-treatment of pain is due in part to a kind of undesirable 'chilling effect.' The concept of a chilling effect, generally, is a useful law enforcement tool. When publicity surrounding a righteous prosecution 'chills' related criminal conduct, that chilling effect is intended, appropriate, and a public good. A chilling effect on the appropriate use of pain medicine, however, is not a public good.
(Legal Opium Producers) "Almost half14 of global opium is legally produced for processing into various opiate based medicines. Any country can formally apply to the UN’s Commission on Narcotic Drugs to cultivate, produce and trade in licit opium, under the auspices of the UN Single Convention on Narcotics Drugs 1961 and under the supervision and guidance of the International Narcotic Control Board (INCB). As of 2001 there were eighteen countries that do, including Australia, Turkey, India, China and the UK."
(Deaths Related to Opioid Analgesic Use) "By 2002, opioid analgesics were involved in more deaths than either of the illicit drugs responsible for most urban drug abuse in the 1990s: heroin and cocaine. These trends are generally consistent with trends in drug-related emergency department visits reported by DAWN from 1997 to 2002: a 101.4% increase in opioid analgesics, a 23.7% increase in cocaine, and a 32.2% increase in heroin.
(Source For Pain Relievers Used Non-Medically Which Were Obtained From A Friend Or Relative For Free) "Among persons aged 12 or older in 2010-2011 who used pain relievers nonmedically in the past year and indicated that they most recently obtained the drugs from a friend or relative for free in the past year, 81.6 percent of the friends or relatives obtained the drugs from just one doctor (Figure 2.14).