"In the 12 months after a nonfatal overdose, 2040 persons (11%) enrolled in MMT for a median of 5 months (interquartile range, 2 to 9 months), 3022 persons (17%) received buprenorphine for a median of 4 months (interquartile range, 2 to 8 months), and 1099 persons (6%) received naltrexone for a median of 1 month (interquartile range, 1 to 2 months). Among the entire cohort, all-cause mortality was 4.7 deaths (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.0 deaths) per 100 person-years and opioid-related mortality was 2.1 deaths (CI, 1.9 to 2.4 deaths) per 100 person-years.
Methadone & Buprenorphine
Data, statistics and information about conventional opioid substitution therapy including methadone, buprenorphine and naltrexone
"This large multicentre, randomised, controlled, comparative effectiveness trial had five major findings. First, it was more difficult to start XR-NTX [Extended-release naltrexone] treatment than BUP-NX [sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone] treatment: 28% dropped out of treatment before XR-NTX induction versus only 6% before BUP-NX induction. Second, nearly all induction failures had early relapse. Third, in the intention-to-treat population of all patients who were randomly assigned, XR-NTX had lower relapse-free survival than BUP-NX, directly related to early induction failure.
"Virtually all drug courts (98%) reported that at least some of their participants were opioid-dependent in 2010. Prescription opioids were more frequently cited as the primary opioid problem than heroin (66% vs. 26%). This trend is particularly apparent in less densely populated areas: prescription versus heroin rates across the three population areas were: rural (76% vs. 12%), suburban (67% vs. 33%), and urban (prescription opioids less likely to be selected than heroin as the primary opioid; 38% vs. 50%); p < .01.
(Methadone vs. Buprenorphine Treatment) "Opioid dependence and addiction, whether to heroin or prescription pain relievers, is a serious, life-threatening medical condition. Methadone and buprenorphine are medications that permit addicted individuals to function normally within their families, jobs, and communities. While treatment with methadone is more established, it requires daily visits to an OTP. Not all individuals who could benefit from methadone treatment live within easy travelling distance of an OTP.
(Efficacy of Naltrexone Treatment) "Studies conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia, for more than a decade have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of different naltrexone formulations (oral, implantable, injectable) for relapse prevention and maintenance of abstinence in detoxified opioid addicts. The positive results from different formulations seem related to two cultural factors. One is that relatives can be recruited to supervise daily dosing of the oral formulation. However, this advantage is decreasing as the addicted population ages.
(Efficacy of Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone) "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the treatment efficacy of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Naltrel, DrugAbuse Sciences) for relapse prevention in 60 heroin-dependent individuals. Patients were stratified by sex and years of heroin use and randomized to receive placebo, 192 mg, or 384 mg of long-acting naltrexone intramuscular injections dosed on weeks 1 and 5. In addition to medication, patients received relapse prevention therapy and had urine monitored for drug relapse.
(Sustained Release Naltrexone Implants) "In order to overcome the issues of poor treatment adherence with oral naltrexone, a number of sustained-release implants have been developed internationally for use in alcohol and opioid dependence. A non-randomized retrospective review examined two types of sustained-release naltrexone implants, oral naltrexone, and historical controls revealed a significant difference between immediate and sustained-release injectable naltrexone in individuals opioid-free 12 months after initiating treatment.
(Growth in Availability and Utilization of Opioid Treatment Programs in the US) "In 2011, 9 percent of all substance treatment facilities had OTPs (Figure 1). This percentage has consistently been between 8 and 9 percent since 2001, when the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration began certifying OTPs.
(Effectiveness of Office-Based Buprenorphine Treatment) "Consistent with the findings of previous research with buprenorphine,1-4 the frequency of illicit opioid use decreased significantly from baseline to induction and was lowest during maintenance for all three groups.
(Regulation and Certification of Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs)) "Methadone, in use since 1964 for the treatment of opioid dependence, may be dispensed only in federally approved Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs). Treatment protocols require that a client take the medication at the clinic where it is dispensed daily.4 Take-home dosages are allowed only for clients who have been on an established maintenance program for an extended period of time.