(Opiate Use in Russia, 2012) "In the Russian Federation, decreased availability of heroin has led to its partial replacement with local and readily available substances such as acetylated opium, as in Belarus, and with desomorphine, a homemade preparation made from over-the-counter preparations containing codeine.41"
International — Drug Control Policies Around The World
(Attitudes in Spain Toward Legalization and Other Drug Policy Options) "As in previous years, the measure aimed at providing a solution to the drug problem which scored highest is the education provided at schools (backed by 91.8% of the population). The second most highly-supported measure is voluntary drug user treatment (84.9%), followed by police and Customs supervision (84.2%) (Table 2.51 and Fig. 2.50).
(Spain's Annual Drug Control Budget, 2010) "Through the different Ministerial Departments, the Central Government has invested a Budget of 136,649,268 euros, a total of 24,215,000 euros thereof having come from the Fund of Assets Seized for Illicit drug Trafficking or other related Offenses. This Fund has been operating since 1996 and is replenished by the cash and the goods seized as a result of final, non-appealable court decisions in proceedings for drug trafficking and other related offenses.
(Implementation of Spain's National Action Plan on Drugs) "Evaluation of the first Action Plan, 2009-2012 was begun in 2011 and continued on into 2012, having now been fully completed, although the results thereof have not as yet been made public.
(Role of Pharmacies in Harm Reduction in Spain) "Apart from the above, the role of the 1,526 pharmacies which have programmes of this type is also fundamental. These pharmacies participate in some cases in dispensing methadone and in other cases in the needle and syringe exchange programmes.
(Drug Consumption Rooms in Spain, 2010) "The objectives of the drug consumption facilities are:
"- To offer a target population comprised of intravenous drug users outside of the care-providing circuits preventive-educational interventions, emergency care and referral to other resources.
"- To reduce the most frequent infections, the transmission of HIV and viral hepatitis.
"- To identify emerging disorders.
"- To reduce the number and consequences (mortality) of acute drug reactions.
"- To facilitate access to the socio-sanitary networks.
(Legal Framework for Opioid Substitution Treatment in Spain) "In Spain, the legal framework of the methadone maintenance programmes (MMPs) is regulated by way of the Royal Decree of January 19, 1990 and Royal Decree 5/1996. The legislative framework regulates the methadone-dispensing facilities in the different Autonomous Communities and Autonomous Cities and specifies that, in each one thereof, there shall be a Commission for the accreditation of the centres and services which take care of carrying out these programmes.
(Number of Clients in Treatment in Spain 2010, and Trends in Admissions) "In 2010, a total of 53,508 admissions were recorded in Spain for treatment for psychoactive substance abuse or dependence (not including alcohol or tobacco). Within the 1998-2002 period, the number of admissions for treatment declined, from 54,338 in 1998 (the year in which the largest number of admissions were recorded) down to 46,744 in 2002.
(Prevalence of HIV in Spain by Transmission Method) "A total of 17,183 new HIV cases were notified within the 2003-2010 period. The annual rates of newly-diagnosed cases per million inhabitants ranges from 96.4 in 2003 to 90.0 in 2009 and 88.5 in 2010.
(Estimated Prevalence of Problem Cannabis Use in Spain) "As shown in Table 4.5 above, in 2010, a total of 4.6% of Spain’s students within the 14-18 age range might be involved in a use of drugs which may cause them some type of problem. The prevalence of problem use, calculated by means of the CAST [Cannabis Abuse Screening Test] scale, reveals an upward trend in Spain within the 2006-2010 time period, despite a slight decline in cannabis use having been record for the same period.