(Prevalence of High-Risk Behaviors Among Injection Drug Users in Central Asia) "The rapid spread of HIV among IDUs in central Asia has been aided by high prevalence of risky behaviours; 50–70% of IDUs share injecting equipment, purchase pre-filled syringes, or draw-up from common containers, and the use of condoms is low (table 4).6,32,34,52–55 Specific drug preparation practices might also increase risk, with blood used in the preparation of so-called vtoryak, a solution obtained by reprocessing materials after preparation of khanka; however, vtoryak w
International — Drug Control Policies Around The World
(Injection Drug Use and HIV in Central Asia) "There have been substantial increases in both trafficking and use of illicit drugs in central Asia, driven by its geographic position along drug-trafficking routes from Afghanistan, domestic opium production in the south of the sub-region, and prevailing socioeconomic conditions.6,14,21,41,42 Although injection of heroin or home-made opiates (eg, so-called khanka) predominates, stimulant injection has also substantially increased, with 69% of IDUs in one Kazakhstan study43 reporting methamphetamine us
(HIV Prevalence in Central Asia) "Although there are fast-growing HIV epidemics across central Asia, Uzbekistan has the largest number of people with HIV and is experiencing a particularly deteriorating situation (table 2).1,16,21–23 The number of people newly diagnosed with HIV has increased more than 11 times in Uzbekistan between 2001 and 2006 compared with four times in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.24 Young people have been most affected by the HIV epidemic: in Uzbekistan 8413 (64%) of 13,146 cumulative HIV cases have been among people aged 34
(Criminal Penalties in Romania for Drug Possession) "In Romania drug laws set no threshold for personal possession; therefore, a person detained with traces of drugs may get a prison term from two to five years depending on the substance. Around 2,000 people are imprisoned each year for drug-related crimes, and the rate of people detained for drug crimes is increasing compared with other crimes. The cost of maintaining a person in prison is about $712 a month, or $8,544 a year. By comparison, methadone treatment costs $234 per month for one person88."
(Drug Users in Kyrgyzstan Prisons) "In Kyrgyzstan prisons, people who use drugs have no access to effective drug treatment in prison settings due to the low coverage of such services. With no alternatives, inmates often get involved in criminal activity in order to sustain drug use. Involvement in such gangs often continues after release, especially if an inmate has debts stemming from drug use87."
(Extent and Cost of Imprisoning Drug Users in Georgia) "The imprisonment of 1,605 people detained in 2008 on the basis of positive drug tests in Georgia cost $4.7 million, and overall costs for imprisonment in the country continue to surge in response to new, punitive policies. In the past few years the prison population has increased four-fold (from 6,000 to 24,000)86."
(Drug Use and HIV in Prisons in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) "Incarceration often makes things worse. Drugs are widely available in most prisons, and HIV transmission is a serious risk given the difficulty in obtaining clean injecting material and other prevention commodities such as condoms. In Tajikistan, for example, the number of HIV cases in prisons is steadily rising. Personal testimonies indicate that heroin is fairly easy to find now in prisons81.
(Injection Drug Use in Georgia) "There are approximately 40,000 people who inject drugs in Georgia, but only 4,000 of them are covered by harm reduction services. OST [Opiate Substitution Treatment] and NSPs [Needle and Syringe Programs] are largely funded through Global Fund; they cover only a few regions and at best cover up to 10% of people in need78.
(Romanian Harm Reduction Programs and Funding Limited) "The Romanian drug policy described in the National Anti-drug Strategy 2005-2012 aims to create 'a functional integrated system of institutions and public services which will ensure the reduction of the occurrence and prevalence of drug use in the general population, adequate medical, psychological and social assistance for drug users and streamlined activities for preventing and countering the trafficking and production of illicit drugs and precursors.'73 However, the government’s strategy to reduce
(Criminal Penalties for Possession in Ukraine) "In September 2010, a new Concept of Drug Policy through 2015 was introduced that does not stipulate any measures for drug treatment. One month later, the government amended the drug laws and criminalized possession of extremely low amounts of narcotic substances—for example, for “acetylated opium” (0.005 grams vs. 0.1 grams in wording previously used), “opium” (0.1 grams vs. 0.5 grams), “acetic anhydride” (2 grams vs. 250 grams), “norefedrine” (0.3 grams vs.