"As noted above, human rights organizations and UN bodies have documented human rights violations against PWUD in Russia, including the absence of drug dependence treatment for people living with HIV and tuberculosis , the use of unscientific methods and the drug user registry in drug dependence treatment , and the prohibition on OST [57, 58].
International — Drug Control Policies Around The World
"Analysis of court statistics demonstrates that the 2013–2014 amendments have not led to the expected outcome of “motivating” PWUD to undergo drug treatment or rehabilitation. Only about 2% of people convicted for drug administrative offenses chose to undergo treatment rather than punishment (about 1500 out of more than 70,000)  and only about 1% of 48,557 people who were involuntarily ordered to undergo drug dependence treatment remained drug-free within a year or more after treatment.
"Recently, this opposition to science and human rights reached a new frontier. In 2010, Russia’s Chief Narcologist announced his endeavor to create a four-level system of “social pressure” in order to respond to the country’s “drug problem” . The first level of this system involves “early detection” of drug use by way of school and workplace testing; the second level is voluntary drug treatment; the third level is compulsory treatment by referral from the criminal justice system; and the fourth level is compulsory treatment within the criminal justice system.
"The latest information, obtained directly by us from the Ministry, covers the year ending 2017, and reports the number of newly registered PLHIV [People Living with HIV] has increased by 105,844. Clearly, this is not an exact measure of incidence, but it gives an indication that numbers continue to rise unabated.
"The rapid implementation of OPSs [Overdose Prevention Sites] in the province of British Columbia, Canada during a public health emergency provides an international example of an alternative to drawn-out, cumbersome sanctioning processes for SCSs [Supervised Consumption Services]. Unsanctioned SCSs provide alternative evidence to inform the implementation of SCSs that are more inclusive and responsive to PWUD [People Who Use Drugs]. Our research adds to this evidence.
"High-risk opioid users are a heterogeneous group that includes marginalised drug users with long-standing ‘careers’ of heroin use, as well as socially included persons who became addicted to opioids through excessive consumption of prescribed pharmaceuticals. The description of high-risk opioid use does not include stable patients in opioid substitution treatment (OST) or others using pharmaceutical opioids in accordance with a doctor’s prescription. Patients in OST who misuse prescribed drugs or other opioids than the prescribed one(s) shall be included, however.
"When it will be legal
"The Cannabis Act has received Royal Assent. Until October 17, 2018, it remains illegal to buy, possess or use cannabis for anything other than authorized medical or research purposes.
"Between now and coming into force, there will be a transition period for:
"the federal government
"provinces and territories
"the regulated industry and
"Law enforcement will continue to enforce existing laws.
"Minister for Health Simon Harris and Minister of State for Communities and the National Drugs Strategy, Catherine Byrne today (Tuesday) welcomed the Government’s decision to approve the publication of the Misuse of Drugs (Supervised Injecting Facilities) Bill 2017.
"The Bill, which was approved by Cabinet at its meeting this morning, will allow the Minister for Health to issue a licence, with conditions, to operate a supervised injecting facility.
(Median Prison Population Rate and Number of People Serving Time in Prisons in the Europe)
"2. The median European Prison Population Rate [PPR] was 124.0 inmates per 100 000 inhabitants.
There was noted an increase of +4% compared to 2012 (125.6 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants). As median calculated values are less sensitive to the extreme figures (i.e. very low prison population rates in small countries with less than 1mln inhabitants), it is preferable to use these values as a more( reliable alternative to the average figures.
(People Serving Time in Prison in the EU for Drug Offenses) "Inmates were sentenced mainly for the following types of criminal offences: drug offences (18%), theft (16%), robbery (14%), and homicide (12%)."