" The proportions of 21- to 30-year-olds who say they have ever shared needles in this way during their lifetime are 0.5% overall—0.6% of males and 0.4% of females (bottom of Table 4-1). As noted in the previous section, 1.5% of the full samples say they have ever injected a drug, so this indicates that a minority—but still a third (0.5%/1.5%)—of the people injecting any of the several drug classes mentioned in the question (heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or steroids) shared a needle at some time.
Data, statistics and information regarding HIV/AIDS related to injection drug use
" In the fifteen-year (2004–2018) combined samples of young adults aged 21–30, 1.5% report having ever used any drug by injection not under a doctor’s orders, and 0.5% reported doing so on 40 or more occasions (Table 4-1a). Thus, about 1 in every 67 respondents has ever used an illicit drug by injection, and about 1 in every 200 respondents reports an extended pattern of use as indicated by use on 40 or more occasions. There are appreciable gender differences—2.2% of males vs.
"The UNODC/WHO/UNAIDS/World Bank joint estimate of the number of PWID in 2016 is 10.6 million (range: 8.3 million to 14.7 million), corresponding to 0.22 per cent (range: 0.17 to 0.30 per cent) of the global population aged 15–64 years. This estimate is based on the most recent and highest quality information currently available to UNODC. It does not imply that there has been a change in the global number of PWID compared with those published in previous editions of the World Drug Report.
"Overall, the number of PWID per 10,000 persons aged 15–64 years varied from 31 to 345 across MSAs [Metropolitan Statistical Areas], median 104.4 (mean 127.4; standard deviation 66.7; percentile range 76–162) in 1992 and from 34 to 324 across MSAs, median 91.5 (mean 103.6; standard deviation 56.4; percentile range 61–125 ) in 2007 indicating an overall decline in PWID prevalence across MSAs.
From 2014 through 2018, the annual number and rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and 6 dependent areas decreased (Table 1b). In the United States and 6 dependent areas, the overall rate in 2018 was 11.5; among adults and adolescents, the rate was 13.6 (Figure 1). From 2014 through 2018, by region, the rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in all regions decreased. In 2018, the rates were 15.6 in the South, 9.9 in the Northeast, 9.7 in the West, and 7.2 in the Midwest (Table 1b)."
"Sex (at birth) and transmission category: From 2014 through 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the annual percentage of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents attributed to male-to-male sexual contact accounted for over 65% of diagnoses (Figure 5 and Table 1b). From 2014 through 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, among male adults and adolescents, the annual number of diagnosed HIV infections attributed to injection drug use increased (Table 1b).
Number of HIV and AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths in the US: "CDC estimates that more than 1.1 million people in the United States (US) are living with HIV infection. Nearly one in five (18.1%) of those people are unaware of their infection. Despite increases in the total number of people in the US living with HIV infection in recent years (due to better testing and treatment options), the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable.
Estimated Global Spending on AIDS: "UNAIDS estimates that the total global resources needed for HIV/AIDS for the period 2009 to 2013 is almost $200 billion to achieve universal access by 2010, and $140 billion for a slower scale-up to achieve universal access by 2015.83
"Prevention of HIV is also cheaper than treatment of HIV/AIDS. For example, in Asia it is estimated that the comprehensive package of HIV-related harm reduction interventions costs $39 per disability-adjusted life-year saved,14 whereas antiretroviral treatment costs approximately $2,000 per life-year saved. Such figures demonstrate that harm reduction is a low-cost, high-impact intervention."
Rights-Based Responses to HIV and Drug Use