addiction

Prosecutions and Administrative Reviews Of Physicians For Offenses Involving The Prescribing Of Opiates

"We identified a total of 986 cases over the 1998–2006 study time frame in which physicians had been criminally charged and/or administratively reviewed with offenses involving the prescribing of opioid analgesics. 335 were criminal cases (178 state, 157 federal) and 651 were administrative cases (525 state medical board cases, 126 DEA administrative actions regarding CS registrations).

"Numbers and Specialties of Study Physicians

Addictive Potential Of Various Drugs Including Marijuana, Heroin, Amphetamines, LSD

Addictive Potential: "Of the people who sample a particular substance, what portion will become physiologically or psychologically dependent on the drug for some period of time? Heroin and methamphetamine are the most addictive by this measure. Cocaine, pentobarbital (a fast-acting sedative), nicotine and alcohol are next, followed by marijuana and possibly caffeine. Some hallucinogens—notably LSD, mescaline and psilocybin—have little or no potential for creating dependence."

Ranking of Substances by Potential for Harm

Ranking of Substances by Potential for Harm: "Method: Members of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, including two invited specialists, met in a 1-day interactive workshop to score 20 drugs on 16 criteria: nine related to the harms that a drug produces in the individual and seven to the harms to others. Drugs were scored out of 100 points, and the criteria were weighted to indicate their relative importance."

Estimated Number of Persons in the US Classified with Substance Dependence or Abuse

"NSDUH’s overall estimates of SUD include people who met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for alcohol or illicit drugs. In 2017, approximately 19.7 million people aged 12 or older had an SUD in the past year, including 14.5 million people who had an alcohol use disorder and 7.5 million people who had an illicit drug use disorder (Figure 39).

Estimated Number of Persons in the US with a Substance Use Disorder

"NSDUH’s overall estimates of SUD [Substance Use Disorder] include people who met the DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for alcohol or illicit drugs. In 2018, approximately 20.3 million people aged 12 or older had an SUD in the past year, including 14.8 million who had an alcohol use disorder and 8.1 million who had an illicit drug use disorder (Figure 42). Among the 8.1 million people who had an illicit drug use disorder, the most common disorders were for marijuana (4.4 million) and misuse of prescription pain relievers (1.7 million).

Reported Effects of Ibogaine and Effectiveness in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

"Ibogaine, a natural alkaloid extracted from the root bark of the African shrub Tabernanthe Iboga, has attracted attention because of its reported ability to reverse human addiction to multiple drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Human anecdotal reports assert that a single administration of ibogaine reduces craving for opiates and cocaine for extended periods of time and reduces opiate withdrawal symptoms (Sheppard 1994; Mash et al., 1998; Alper et al., 1999). Studies also suggest that ibogaine attenuates drug- and ethanol induced behaviors in rodents.

Pages