Adulteration and Impurities in Illegally-Manufactured Substances: One of the risks associated with Ecstasy is the possibility of obtaining adulterated drugs that may be more toxic than MDMA. Some of the reported deaths attributed to Ecstasy may likely caused by other, more dangerous drugs.
Dangers Posed by Dehydration and Overheating: Some of these deaths are related to overheating. MDMA slightly raises body temperature. This is potentially lethal in hot environments where there is vigorous dancing and the lack of adequate fluid replacement. Many of these tragic deaths are preventable with simple harm reduction techniques such as having free water available and rooms where people can rest and relax.
Effects of MDMA: "Ecstasy's effects last 3 to 6 hours. It is a mood elevator that produces feelings of empathy, openness and well-being. People who take it at all night "rave" dances say they enjoy dancing and feeling close to others. It does not produce violence or physical addiction."
Initiation of MDMA Use in the US: There were 839,000 past year initiates of Ecstasy aged 12 or older in 2015 (Figure 10), which averages to about 2,300 people each day who initiated Ecstasy use. In 2015, an estimated 168,000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 (Table A.8A in Appendix A), 531,000 young adults aged 18 to 25 (Table A.9A), and 141,000 adults aged 26 or older (Table A.10A) used Ecstasy for the first time in the past year. In 2015, the average age at first Ecstasy use among recent Ecstasy initiates aged 12 to 49 was 20.7 years (Figure 11).
On-Site Pill Testing and Harm Reduction: "Pill testing interventions are important measures to enter into contact with hard-to-reach populations and to raise their interest in preventive and harm reduction messages."
MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) and Cognitive Impairment: "In summary, our data suggest that ecstasy use over a period of months or a few years may cause long term impairment of cognitive performance even when ecstasy is taken in typical recreational and not necessarily very high doses."
MDMA and Treatment of Trauma and PTSD in US: In 2004, the Drug Enforcement Administration gave permission for the first US trial of MDMA for use in treating trauma: "Capping a 17-year effort by a small but committed group of activists, the federal Drug Enforcement Administration has agreed to let a South Carolina physician treat 12 trauma victims with the illegal street drug ecstasy in what will be the first U.S.-approved study of the recreational drug's therapeutic potential.