(MDMA-Involved Mortality, 1998) The Drug Abuse Warning Network estimates that ecstasy was involved in -- though not necessarily the cause of -- nine deaths in 1998. According to DAWN's 2002 mortality report: "The DAWN metropolitan area profiles include information on 'club drugs' as a group, combining all mentions of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy), Ketamine, gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) and its precursor gamma butyrolactone (GBL), and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol).
(History of MDMA) "MDMA is not a new drug. It was first synthesized by the German pharmaceutical firm Merck in 1912. Human experimentation, however, has been traced back to the early 1970s (Eisner, 1989; Shulgin, 1990)."
Alternative Analysis of the Relative Risk from MDMA Use: "Nutt et al. (2007) attempted to compare the relative dangers of the main types of psychosocial drug, using a series of subjective rating scales. Heroin and cocaine were graded as the two most harmful drugs, whereas Ecstasy/MDMA emerged as one of the least harmful (18th out of 20). Unfortunately, it was unclear how this low harm rating score for Ecstasy/MDMA was given, as they cited no empirical research studies or reviews. Instead, Nutt et al.
Prevalence of Ecstasy Use in US: According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, in the United States in 2015 among people aged 12 and older there were an estimated 18,328,000 lifetime users of MDMA, 2,560,000 past-year users, and 557,000 past-month users.
Adulterants, Pill Testing, and Harm Reduction: Deaths from adulterated drugs are another consequence of a zero tolerance approach. The drug should be tested for purity to minimize the risk from adulterated drugs by those who consume it.