Ecstasy (MDMA)

Ecstasy (MDMA)

MDMA Therapy and Substance Abuse

(MDMA Therapy and Substance Abuse) "The data we obtained about illicit drug use from the LTFU [Long Term Follow Up] Questionnaire supports the hypothesis that MDMA can be administered in a clinical setting with minimal risk that the subjects will subsequently seek out and self-administer 'street ecstasy,' or become dependent on the drug.

Neurocognitive Effects from Long-Term MDMA Use

(Neurocognitive Effects from Long-Term MDMA Use) "Using this rigorous approach, we found few consistent differences between ecstasy users and non-users on wide-ranging measures of verbal and visuospatial memory, verbal fluency, attention, processing speed, manipulative dexterity and executive cortical functions. Ecstasy users exhibited lower vocabulary scores than non-users, but this finding probably indicates differences in pre-morbid ability rather than neurotoxicity of ecstasy, as vocabulary is generally preserved even after neurological insults [26,45,46].

MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Sociability and Empathy

(MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly), Sociability and Empathy) "We found that MDMA (1.5 mg/kg only) altered a behavioral indicator of social cognition. Specifically, it robustly reduced recognition of fearful faces, without changing recognition of other emotions from facial or vocal cues. Although previous studies have confirmed that the drug induces subjective feelings related to sociability and empathy, this is the first published demonstration of an overt behavioral effect of MDMA in humans."

Effectiveness of MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) in Psychotherapy

(Effectiveness of MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) in Psychotherapy) "This pilot study demonstrates that MDMA-assisted psychotherapy with close follow-up monitoring and support can be used with acceptable and short-lived side effects in a carefully screened group of subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. In this group, MDMA-assisted psychotherapy compared with the same psychotherapy with inactive placebo produced clinically and statistically significant improvements in PTSD symptoms as measured by standard symptom scales.

Global Manufacture

(Global Manufacture) "The number of 'ecstasy' laboratories seized worldwide declined from 52 in 2009 to 44 laboratories in 2010. Countries reporting 'ecstasy' manufacture in 2010 (by number of laboratories seized) were Australia (17), Canada (13), Indonesia (12), Malaysia (1) and Argentina (1). Despite a decline in reported 'ecstasy' manufacture, it is worth noting that some countries, such as Australia and Indonesia, reported an increase in the manufacturing capability or size of laboratories.

MDMA-Involved Mortality, 2000

(MDMA-Involved Mortality, 2000) "Deaths associated with club drugs other than methamphetamine are quite rare in DAWN data.
"• Cumulatively, 2,601 deaths associated with methamphetamine abuse, 46 deaths associated with Ketamine, and 27 with MDMA were reported by participating medical examiners over the 5-year period from 1994 to 1998.
"• There were no notable increases in deaths involving club drugs from 1994 to 1998."

Effects of MDMA ("Ecstasy")

(Effects of MDMA ("Ecstasy")) "MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is an amphetamine analog with stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
"MDMA acts primarily on neurons that produce and release serotonin, but it also affects dopaminergic neurons. MDMA is usually taken as a pill; effects begin 30 to 60 min after ingestion and typically last 4 to 6 h. MDMA is often used at dance clubs, concerts, and rave parties.
"Symptoms and Signs