"In the period 1995–2008, a considerable increase in hepatitis B among drug users nationwide was reported to MSIS. In 2013, four of a total of 30 reported cases of acute hepatitis B involved injecting drug users. During the period 1995–2013, the total number of reported cases of acute hepatitis B infection among injecting drug users was 1,980. Hepatitis B vaccination has been offered free of charge to injecting drug users since the mid-1980s."
injection drug use
"In 2013, 233 cases of HIV infection were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Eight of the cases were among injecting drug users: six men and two women. The median age was 31 years (30 to 37 years). Five of the eight injecting drug users who were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2013 were persons of foreign origin (mostly Eastern European) who had been infected before arriving in Norway.
Ranges for the number of people in Norway who inject drugs, 2002-2010
"The estimated number of injecting drug users in Norway was also reported prior to the revision, using the mortality multiplier method. This method divides the number of drug-related deaths by the likelihood of dying of a drug-related diagnosis in the population of injectors in the 15–64 age group. First, an estimate of the number of recreational users was subtracted from the nominator because they are less likely to have injected the substance that caused the death.
HIV, HCV, and Injection Drug Use in Australia: "In Australia it is estimated that about 13 per cent of people with HIV also have HCV. HIV shares major routes of transmission with both HCV and HBV. People who inject drugs are at particularly high risk for HCV and HIV co-infection.
"By far the highest prevalence of HIV among PWID [People Who Inject Drugs] is in South-West Asia and in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, with rates that are, respectively, 2.4 and 1.9 times the global average. Together, those two subregions account for 49 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide living with HIV. Although the prevalence of HIV among PWID in East and South-East Asia is below the global average, 24 per cent of the global total of PWID living with HIV reside in that subregion.
"Drug consumption rooms are professionally supervised healthcare facilities where drug users can consume drugs in safer conditions. They seek to attract hard-to-reach populations of users, especially marginalised groups and those who use on the streets or in other risky and unhygienic conditions. One of their primary goals is to reduce morbidity and mortality by providing a safe environment for more hygienic use and by training clients in safer use.
Syringe Exchange Activity in Australia: The number of needles and syringes distributed in Australia increased during the past decade (from ~27 million to ~31 million). Expenditure on NSPs increased by 36% (adjusted for inflation) over this time period, mostly associated with personnel and not principally for equipment (Table a); a significant portion of the increased investment has been the Illicit Diversion Supporting Measures for NSPs to increase referrals to drug treatment and other services.
Hepatitis C and Injection Drug Use in Australia "Approximately 83 per cent of HCV infections have resulted from unsafe injecting drug use practices. In Australia in 2006 it was estimated that approximately 264,000 people had been exposed to HCV and had HCV antibodies with around 197,000 living with chronic hepatitis C. The estimated number of new cases of HCV infection has declined from 16,000 per annum in 2001 to 10,000 in 2005. The majority (65 per cent) of people with HCV are aged between 20 and 39 years and 35 per cent of national notifications of HCV are in women.
"We found that in cities with NEPs HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users decreased on average, whereas in cities without NEPs HIV seroprevalence increased. A plausible explanation for this difference is that the NEPs led to a reduction in HIV incidence among injecting drug users.