HIV

Global Review Shows Most Countries Lack Adequate HIV Prevention Resources

"Some of the most adverse health consequences of drug use are experienced by PWID. A global review of services aimed at reducing adverse health consequences among PWID has suggested that only 79 countries have implemented both needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy. Only four countries were classified as having high levels of coverage of both of those types of interventions.

State Policies Regarding Disease Prevention and Syringe Service Programs

"Eighteen states had laws that were categorized as least comprehensive related to the prevention of HCV transmission among persons who inject drugs. In particular, these 18 states had no laws authorizing a syringe exchange program, decriminalizing possession and distribution of syringes and needles, or allowing the retail sale of syringes without a prescription.

Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia

Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia: "The prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs in Australia has remained low at 2.1% or less since 1995. The prevalence of HIV in 2011 was 1.2% (Figure 46). HCV prevalence among this group was much higher at 61% to 62% from 2005 to 2008, however this figure was lower at 53% 2011 (Figure 46) (Iversen and Maher, 2012)."

Incidence of HIV Among People in Norway Who Inject Drugs

"In 2013, 233 cases of HIV infection were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Eight of the cases were among injecting drug users: six men and two women. The median age was 31 years (30 to 37 years). Five of the eight injecting drug users who were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2013 were persons of foreign origin (mostly Eastern European) who had been infected before arriving in Norway.

Persons in the US and 6 Dependent Areas Living with HIV, by Race/Ethnicity

According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), at year-end 2014 there were an estimated total of 972,813 persons living with an HIV diagnosis in the US states and 6 dependent territories. Of these, 2,909 were American Indian/Alaska Native, 12,370 were Asian, 405,644 were Black/African-American, 215,721 were Hispanic/Latino, 881 were Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, 300,231 were White, and 35,057 were multiple races.

Annual Rate of HIV Diagnoses in the US

From 2014 through 2018, the annual number and rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and 6 dependent areas decreased (Table 1b). In the United States and 6 dependent areas, the overall rate in 2018 was 11.5; among adults and adolescents, the rate was 13.6 (Figure 1). From 2014 through 2018, by region, the rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in all regions decreased. In 2018, the rates were 15.6 in the South, 9.9 in the Northeast, 9.7 in the West, and 7.2 in the Midwest (Table 1b)."

Prevalence of Diagnosed HIV Infection in the US by Method of Transmission

"Sex (at birth) and transmission category: From 2014 through 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the annual percentage of diagnoses of HIV infection among adults and adolescents attributed to male-to-male sexual contact accounted for over 65% of diagnoses (Figure 5 and Table 1b). From 2014 through 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, among male adults and adolescents, the annual number of diagnosed HIV infections attributed to injection drug use increased (Table 1b).

Cost Effectiveness of Harm Reduction

"Prevention of HIV is also cheaper than treatment of HIV/AIDS. For example, in Asia it is estimated that the comprehensive package of HIV-related harm reduction interventions costs $39 per disability-adjusted life-year saved,14 whereas antiretroviral treatment costs approximately $2,000 per life-year saved. Such figures demonstrate that harm reduction is a low-cost, high-impact intervention."

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