"Some of the most adverse health consequences of drug use are experienced by PWID. A global review of services aimed at reducing adverse health consequences among PWID has suggested that only 79 countries have implemented both needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy. Only four countries were classified as having high levels of coverage of both of those types of interventions.
"Eighteen states had laws that were categorized as least comprehensive related to the prevention of HCV transmission among persons who inject drugs. In particular, these 18 states had no laws authorizing a syringe exchange program, decriminalizing possession and distribution of syringes and needles, or allowing the retail sale of syringes without a prescription.
Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia: "The prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs in Australia has remained low at 2.1% or less since 1995. The prevalence of HIV in 2011 was 1.2% (Figure 46). HCV prevalence among this group was much higher at 61% to 62% from 2005 to 2008, however this figure was lower at 53% 2011 (Figure 46) (Iversen and Maher, 2012)."
"In 2013, 233 cases of HIV infection were reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Eight of the cases were among injecting drug users: six men and two women. The median age was 31 years (30 to 37 years). Five of the eight injecting drug users who were diagnosed as HIV positive in 2013 were persons of foreign origin (mostly Eastern European) who had been infected before arriving in Norway.
HIV, HCV, and Injection Drug Use in Australia: "In Australia it is estimated that about 13 per cent of people with HIV also have HCV. HIV shares major routes of transmission with both HCV and HBV. People who inject drugs are at particularly high risk for HCV and HIV co-infection.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), at year-end 2014 there were an estimated total of 972,813 persons living with an HIV diagnosis in the US states and 6 dependent territories. Of these, 2,909 were American Indian/Alaska Native, 12,370 were Asian, 405,644 were Black/African-American, 215,721 were Hispanic/Latino, 881 were Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, 300,231 were White, and 35,057 were multiple races.
"Prevention of HIV is also cheaper than treatment of HIV/AIDS. For example, in Asia it is estimated that the comprehensive package of HIV-related harm reduction interventions costs $39 per disability-adjusted life-year saved,14 whereas antiretroviral treatment costs approximately $2,000 per life-year saved. Such figures demonstrate that harm reduction is a low-cost, high-impact intervention."
"By far the highest prevalence of HIV among PWID [People Who Inject Drugs] is in South-West Asia and in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, with rates that are, respectively, 2.4 and 1.9 times the global average. Together, those two subregions account for 49 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide living with HIV. Although the prevalence of HIV among PWID in East and South-East Asia is below the global average, 24 per cent of the global total of PWID living with HIV reside in that subregion.
"We found that in cities with NEPs HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users decreased on average, whereas in cities without NEPs HIV seroprevalence increased. A plausible explanation for this difference is that the NEPs led to a reduction in HIV incidence among injecting drug users.
"From 2010 through 2014, the number and rate of persons living with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS) increased (Table 19a). At year-end 2014, 521,002 persons in the United States were living with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS). The prevalence rate of infections classified as stage 3 (AIDS) was 163.4."