(Comparison of Youth Substance Use in the US and EU) "The concept of 'illicit drugs' includes marijuana, hashish, amphetamines, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, GHB, LSD or other hallucinogens, and heroin. GHB has been added to this list since the 2007 ESPAD report. Reported use of any of these illicit drugs varies considerably across the ESPAD countries. In the Czech Republic, 43% of the students report having used any of the drugs in question at least once, which is more than twice the ESPAD average of 18%.
Estimated prevalence and trends in use of various substances by young people and adults in the United States and worldwide.
(Perceived Effect of Legalization on Youth) "Most 12th graders felt that they would be little affected personally by the legalization of either the sale or the use of marijuana. Over half (56%) of the respondents said that they would not use the drug even if it were legal to buy and use, while others indicated they would use it about as often as they do now (15%) or less often (1.5%). Only 9% said they would use it more often than they do at present, while 10% thought they would try it.
(Attitudes of Young People Toward Legalization of Marijuana)
" Table 8-8 lists the proportions of 12th graders in 2013 who favor various legal consequences for marijuana use: making it entirely legal (42%), a minor violation like a parking ticket but not a crime (25%), or a crime (21%). The remaining 13% said they 'don’t know.' It is noteworthy just how variable attitudes about this contentious issue are.
(Chronic Substance Use and Employment) "In conclusion, this study found that chronic drug use was significantly related to employment status for men and women. On the other hand, male chronic drug users were less likely to participate in the labor force, but no significant relationship existed between chronic drug use and labor force participation for females. Perhaps the most important finding of this study, however, was the lack of any significant relationships between nonchronic drug use, employment, and labor force participation.
(Perceived Availability of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Among US Youth)
Estimated Substance Use In The US By Gender: "In 2013, as in prior years, the rate of current illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older was higher for males (11.5 percent) than for females (7.3 percent). Males were more likely than females to be current users of several different illicit drugs, including marijuana (9.7 vs. 5.6 percent), cocaine (0.8 vs. 0.4 percent), and hallucinogens (0.7 vs. 0.3 percent).
"Illicit drug use disorder is defined as meeting DSM-IV criteria for either dependence or abuse for one or more of the following illicit drugs: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, methamphetamine, or prescription psychotherapeutic drugs that were misused (i.e., pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives). There are seven possible dependence criteria for specific illicit drugs:
"1. spent a lot of time engaging in activities related to use of the drug,
"2. used the drug in greater quantities or for a longer time than intended,