(Impact of Decriminalization) "The information we have presented adds to the current literature on the impacts of decriminalization. It disconfirms the hypothesis that decriminalization necessarily leads to increases in the most harmful forms of drug use. While small increases in drug use were reported by Portuguese adults, the regional context of this trend suggests that they were not produced solely by the 2001 decriminalization.
Estimated prevalence and trends in use of various substances by young people and adults in the United States and worldwide.
(Stigmatization) "Because the impacts of problem drug users are largely hidden, and also because their number is actually relatively small (approximately 330,000; Hay et al., 2008),22 people’s understanding of problem drug use tends to come from remote sources – the media (including the internet, television, films, magazines and books) and anecdote – rather than from direct experience.
(Illegal Use of Prescription Drugs and Narcotics Other Than Heroin Among US Youth)
"Any prescription drug misuse includes use of narcotics, sedatives, tranquilizers, and/or amphetamines without medical supervision. It has been of considerable public health concern in recent years, because most of these drugs showed a substantial increase in use in the 1990s, which then continued into the first decade of the 2000s, when many of the illegal drugs already were in decline.
(Occupational Injury) "We conclude that there is an association between substance use and occupational injury. This association is stronger for males and in certain industries, such as manufacturing and construction, and may also be stronger for younger workers, though future research is needed on this last point. The proportion of injuries caused by substance use, however, is relatively small.
(Alcohol Use Among African-Americans In The US, 2002-2008) "Past month alcohol use, binge alcohol use, and illicit drug use remained relatively stable among black adults between 2002 and 2008 (Figure1).4,5
"Combined 2004 to 2008 data indicate that, in the past month, 44.3 percent of black adults used alcohol, 21.7 percent reported binge alcohol use, and 9.5 percent used an illicit drug (Figure 2).
(Baby Boomers) "In 2007, the rate of past year use in this age group [persons aged 50 to 59] was 9.4 percent for any illicit drug, 5.7 percent for marijuana, and 4.0 percent for nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Analyses show that the observed increases are driven primarily by the aging of the baby boom cohort, which has a much higher lifetime illicit drug use rate than earlier cohorts, representing an increasing proportion of persons aged 50 to 59. Less than 3 percent of past year users initiated drug use at ages 50 to 59.
(Drug Use by Veterans, 2003) "In 2003, there were an estimated 25 million veterans comprising roughly 11.5 percent of the 217 million non-institutionalized civilians aged 17 or older in the United States."
"An estimated 3.5 percent of veterans used marijuana in the past month compared with 3.0 percent of their nonveteran counterparts in 2003"
"Heavy use of alcohol was more prevalent among veterans than comparable nonveterans, with an estimated 7.5 percent of veterans drinking heavily in the past month compared with 6.5 percent of their nonveteran counterparts."
(Use by Educational Status, 2011) "Illicit drug use in 2011 varied by the educational status of adults aged 18 or older, with the rate of current illicit drug use lower among college graduates (5.4 percent) than those with some college education (10.4 percent), high school graduates (8.9 percent), and those who had not graduated from high school (11.1 percent)."