(Impact of Drug Testing for TANF Benefits) "Few proposals [to drug test applicants and recipients of TANF - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families] suggest child well-being improvements as a result of drug testing, though provisions for protective payees for children’s benefits are intended to ensure funds are spent on children’s needs. Proposals that sanction families by definition reduce the income available to the family and may therefore decrease child well?being.
Statistics and data relating to testing for drug use, including urinalysis/urine testing, hair analysis, saliva testing, impairment testing, and other methods, with related chapters focusing on testing in the workplace and in schools.
(What Urine Drug Testing Can and Cannot Measure) "Urine drug tests, which are the least expensive and most frequently used form of drug test, can generally detect marijuana use within the past week; cocaine, heroin and other 'hard' drugs used within the past two days; and alcohol use within the past several hours (though alcohol is not often included in drug screens). Drug tests cannot measure frequency of use, nor do they indicate the severity of impairment or whether an individual has a substance use disorder that requires treatment.
(Drug Testing as a Condition of Receiving Federal Benefits) "The Supreme Court, on a number of occasions, has held that government-administered drug tests are searches under the Fourth Amendment.14 Therefore, the constitutionality of a law that requires an individual to pass a drug test before he may receive federal benefits likely will turn on whether the drug test is reasonable under the circumstances."
(Psychological Testing) "There is no psychological test that can reliably screen for substance abuse. The MAC-R Index on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) detects only addiction potential, not current use. If someone has been addicted in the past but is currently living a sober lifestyle, that person is still likely to test positive for addiction potential as this is more a personality style instead of a measure of current status (Friedman, Lewak, Nichols, & Webb, 2001).
(Effectiveness of Drug Testing vs. Management and Supervision) "While the inquiry team could see a role for employee drug testing within safety-critical areas (although even here they were far from convinced that such drug testing was effective), there was deep scepticism as to the value of such testing more broadly. Indeed, the inquiry team noted that ‘For the most part, it is unclear that anything can be achieved through drug and alcohol testing that could not be done better through other managerial and supervisory processes’"
(Drug Testing, Alcohol Testing, and the ADA) "Although most laws concerning drug testing are at the state level, federal law must be considered when employers do test for ethanol (i.e., alcohol). The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Pub. L. No. 101-336) protects individuals with disabilities from discrimination in the workplace. Individuals with current alcohol-induced impairments and past alcohol problems are covered under the ADA.
(Drug Testing of Arrestees in the US) "Illegal drugs are widely used among the arrestee population. Two thirds of all arrestees tested positive for at least one substance in their system at the time of arrest and 15 percent or more in all sites test positive for more than one substance. The most common substances in all but three sites are marijuana, cocaine, opiates and methamphetamine."