Prevalence of IDU-Related HIV in Prisons in Central Asia
"HIV testing within prison populations has been widespread in central Asia, reflecting sentinel surveillance and mandatory testing policies. HIV prevalence among prisoners ranges from 2% in Kazakhstan to nearly 7% in Tajikistan (figure 2). By the start of 2007, more than 25% of cumulative registered HIV cases in Kazakhstan were in prisoners, and in Tajikistan, a fifth of the registered HIV population are prisoners;32,64 these proportions reflect HIV-testing policies, criminalisation of illicit drug use, and high rates of risk behaviours among prisoners, both inside and outside prison settings.59 In central Asia, 5–25% of prisoners are estimated to have drug dependence43 and up to 70% share injecting equipment.32,69 In one study in Kazakhstan,36 the prevalence of syphilis among prisoners in temporary detention was 5%. The prevalence of tuberculosis among inmates is 60–100-times higher compared with the general population, with high tuberculosis mortality.64"