Estimated Prevalence of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Use in the EU
"Amphetamine and methamphetamine, two closely related stimulants, are both consumed in Europe, although amphetamine is by far the more commonly used. Methamphetamine consumption has historically been restricted to the Czech Republic and, more recently, Slovakia, although recent years have seen increases in use in other countries. In some data sets, it is not possible to distinguish between these two substances; in these cases, the generic term amphetamines is used.
"Both drugs can be taken orally or nasally; in addition, injection is common among high-risk users in some countries. Methamphetamine can also be smoked, but this route of administration is not commonly reported in Europe.
"An estimated 1.3 million (1.0 %) young adults (15–34) used amphetamines during the last year, with the most recent national prevalence estimates ranging from 0.1 % to 2.9 %. The available data suggest that since around 2000, most European countries have experienced a relatively stable situation in respect to trends in use. Of the countries that have produced surveys since 2013, seven reported higher estimates, one reported a stable trend and four reported lower estimates than in the previous comparable survey. Although not comparable with earlier surveys, the Netherlands recently reported a prevalence of 2.9 % among young adults.
"In the limited number of countries where it is possible to analyse longer term statistically significant trends, both Spain and the United Kingdom show a decrease in prevalence since 2000 (Figure 2.6). In contrast, Finland has shown a steady increase in prevalence over the same period and now reports one of the highest levels in Europe.
"Analysis of municipal wastewater carried out in 2015 found amphetamines at appreciable levels in cities across Europe. The mass loads of amphetamine varied considerably, with the highest levels reported in cities in the north of Europe (see Figure 2.7). Amphetamine was found at much lower levels in cities in the south of Europe. The highest mass loads of methamphetamine were found in cities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Norway. Overall, the data from 2011 to 2015 showed relatively stable trends for both drugs."