Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS
- HIV/AIDS, Injection Drug Use, and Race in the US
- Supervised Consumption Spaces
- Syringe Service Programs
- Hepatitis C and Injection Drug Use
- Persons In The US Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection Ever Classified as Stage 3 (AIDS), by Transmission Method
Page last updated June 9, 2020 by Doug McVay, Editor/Senior Policy Analyst.
36. Cost of HIV Treatment
The lifetime cost of treating an HIV positive person was estimated in 1997 to be $195,188.
Holtgrave, DR, Pinkerton, SD. "Updates of Cost of Illness and Quality of Life Estimates for Use in Economic Evaluations of HIV Prevention Programs." Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, Vol. 16, pp. 54-62 (1997).
37. Spending on HIV-Related Harm Reduction, 2007
"At approximately $160 million in 2007, the estimated total spending on HIV-related harm reduction in low and middle income countries is extremely low, and would still be insufficient even if this figure was underestimated by a factor of two or three. It amounts to about three US cents a day, or $12.80 a year, for each person who injects drugs. It is clearly inadequate when compared with indicative unit costs of providing needles and syringes (approximately $100 per person per year) and methadone (approximately $500 per person per year)."
"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), p. 39.
38. Cost Effectiveness of Harm Reduction
"Prevention of HIV is also cheaper than treatment of HIV/AIDS. For example, in Asia it is estimated that the comprehensive package of HIV-related harm reduction interventions costs $39 per disability-adjusted life-year saved,14 whereas antiretroviral treatment costs approximately $2,000 per life-year saved. Such figures demonstrate that harm reduction is a low-cost, high-impact intervention."
"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), p. 12.
39. Estimated Number and Prevalence of People Who Inject Drugs in 2014
"The joint UNODC/WHO/UNAIDS/World Bank estimate for the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) for 2014 is 11.7 million (range: from 8.4 to 19.0 million), or 0.25 per cent (range: 0.18-0.40 per cent) of the population aged 15-64. PWID experience some of the most severe health-related harms associated with unsafe drug use, overall poor health outcomes, including a high risk for non-fatal and fatal overdoses, and a greater chance of premature death.97 This is exacerbated by poor access to evidence-informed services for the prevention and treatment of infections, particularly HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis.98
"Eastern and South-Eastern Europe is the subregion with by far the highest prevalence of injecting drug use: 1.27 per cent of the population aged 15-64. The subregion accounts for almost one in four (24 per cent) of the total number of PWID worldwide; almost all PWID in the subregion reside in the Russian Federation and Ukraine. In Central Asia and Transcaucasia and in North America, the prevalence of injecting drug use is also high: 0.72 per cent of the population aged 15-64 in Central Asia and Transcaucasia; and 0.65 per cent in North America. Those three subregions combined account for 46 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide. Although the prevalence of injecting drug use in East and South-East Asia is at a level below the global average, a large number of PWID (27 per cent of the total number of PWID in the world) reside in the subregion, given that it is the most populated subregion. Three countries (China, Russian Federation and United States) together account for nearly half of the total number of PWID worldwide."
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2016 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.16.XI.7), p. 14.
40. AIDS Deaths in Local Jails in the US
From 2000 through 2014, a total of 569 people died from AIDS-related illnesses while serving time in a local jail in the US. Of those, 98 were white non-Latinx, 395 were black non-Latinx, 73 were Latinx, and 3 were "other."
Noonan, Margaret E., "Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2014 - Statistical Tables" (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016), NCJ250169, Tables 1 and 2, p. 5; Table 8, p. 10; and Table 21, p. 20.