Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS

36. Global Expenditures

"Global expenditure on HIV/AIDS has increased substantially in the last decade, with total annual resources from all sources reaching over $11.3 billion in 2007 and $13.7 billion in 2008.37 Most of these resources are destined for low and middle income countries and include the expenditure allocated to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, treatment and support."

"The Global Fund [to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]’s annual HIV/AIDS disbursement was approximately $1 billion in 2007,39 $1.6 billion in 2008 and $2.8 billion in 2009.40 From 2002 to 2009 the Global Fund has approved a total grant amount of $10 billion for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care. For the 2008 to 2010 biennium, $9.7 billion has been pledged to the Global Fund for all activities by countries and private donors."41

"The total resources made available for HIV/AIDS increased from $7.9 billion in 2005 to $13.8 million in 2008. Nevertheless, there continues to be a resource gap. UNAIDS estimates that overall the funding needed in 2007 was $18 billion,45 indicating that resources need to be increased by about 60%."

"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), pp. 19-21.
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/646635...

37. Estimated Global Spending on AIDS

"UNAIDS estimates that the total global resources needed for HIV/AIDS for the period 2009 to 2013 is almost $200 billion to achieve universal access by 2010, and $140 billion for a slower scale-up to achieve universal access by 2015.83
"The UNAIDS estimates for harm reduction assume 60% coverage for needle and syringe programmes and 40% for opioid substitution therapy.84 These estimates are based on the resources needed for prevention-related activities in order to reach 6.2 million people who inject drugs by 2010 in 132 lower and middle income countries. UNAIDS assumes the cost of opioid substitution therapy using methadone to be between $363 and $1,057 per person per year (which is higher than other estimates in Table 4) and the costs of needle and syringe programmes to be $10 per person per year (lower than other estimates in Table 3).
"Using these figures, UNAIDS estimates that the resources needed for harm reduction are $2.13 billion in 2009 and $3.2 billion in 2010, an average of $170 and $256 respectively per injector per year. Additional resources will be required for antiretroviral treatment, care and support."85

"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), pp. 38-39.
http://dl.dropbox.com/u/646635...

38. HIV and Injection Drug Use in Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia

"By far the highest prevalence of HIV among PWID [People Who Inject Drugs] is in South-West Asia and in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, with rates that are, respectively, 2.4 and 1.9 times the global average. Together, those two subregions account for 49 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide living with HIV. Although the prevalence of HIV among PWID in East and South-East Asia is below the global average, 24 per cent of the global total of PWID living with HIV reside in that subregion. An estimated 53 per cent of PWID living with HIV worldwide in 2016 (662,000 people) resided in just three countries (China, Pakistan and the Russian Federation), which is disproportionately large compared with the percentage of the world’s PWID living in those three countries (35 per cent)."

World Drug Report 2018. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.18.XI.9.
https://www.unodc.org/wdr2018/
https://www.unodc.org/wdr2018/...

39. Estimated Number and Prevalence of People Who Inject Drugs in 2014

"The joint UNODC/WHO/UNAIDS/World Bank estimate for the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) for 2014 is 11.7 million (range: from 8.4 to 19.0 million), or 0.25 per cent (range: 0.18-0.40 per cent) of the population aged 15-64. PWID experience some of the most severe health-related harms associated with unsafe drug use, overall poor health outcomes, including a high risk for non-fatal and fatal overdoses, and a greater chance of premature death.97 This is exacerbated by poor access to evidence-informed services for the prevention and treatment of infections, particularly HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis.98

"Eastern and South-Eastern Europe is the subregion with by far the highest prevalence of injecting drug use: 1.27 per cent of the population aged 15-64. The subregion accounts for almost one in four (24 per cent) of the total number of PWID worldwide; almost all PWID in the subregion reside in the Russian Federation and Ukraine. In Central Asia and Transcaucasia and in North America, the prevalence of injecting drug use is also high: 0.72 per cent of the population aged 15-64 in Central Asia and Transcaucasia; and 0.65 per cent in North America. Those three subregions combined account for 46 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide. Although the prevalence of injecting drug use in East and South-East Asia is at a level below the global average, a large number of PWID (27 per cent of the total number of PWID in the world) reside in the subregion, given that it is the most populated subregion. Three countries (China, Russian Federation and United States) together account for nearly half of the total number of PWID worldwide."

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2016 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.16.XI.7), p. 14.
https://www.unodc.org/wdr2016/
https://www.unodc.org/wdr2016/...
https://www.unodc.org/doc/wdr2...

40. AIDS Deaths in Local Jails in the US

From 2000 through 2014, a total of 569 people died from AIDS-related illnesses while serving time in a local jail in the US. Of those, 98 were white non-Latinx, 395 were black non-Latinx, 73 were Latinx, and 3 were "other."
In 2015, a total of 10 people serving time in local jails in the US died from AIDS-related illnesses.

Noonan, Margaret E., "Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2014 - Statistical Tables" (Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, Dec. 2016), NCJ250169, Tables 1 and 2, p. 5; Table 8, p. 10; and Table 21, p. 20.
https://www.bjs.gov/content/pu...

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