Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS

31. Cases of AIDS, Cumulative Through 2007

"Through 2007, a total of 1,030,832 persons in the United States and dependent areas had been reported as having AIDS (Table 16). Three states (California, Florida, and New York) reported 43% of the cumulative AIDS cases and 36% of AIDS cases reported to CDC in 2007. In the 50 states and the District of Columbia, the rate of reported AIDS cases in 2007 was 12.4 per 100,000 population. When the U.S. dependent areas were included, the rate of reported AIDS cases ranged from zero per 100,000 (American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands) to 148.1 per 100,000 (District of Columbia)."

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2007," Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2009: p. 9.

32. Global Estimated Drug-Related Mortality, 2011

"UNODC estimates that there were between 102,000 and 247,000 drug-related deaths in 2011, corresponding to a mortality rate of between 22.3 and 54.0 deaths per million population aged 15-64. This represents between 0.54 per cent and 1.3 per cent of mortality from all causes globally among those aged 15-64.20 The extent of drug-related deaths has essentially remained unchanged globally and within regions."

UNODC, World Drug Report 2013 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.13.XI.6), p. 10.

33. Global Expenditures

"Global expenditure on HIV/AIDS has increased substantially in the last decade, with total annual resources from all sources reaching over $11.3 billion in 2007 and $13.7 billion in 2008.37 Most of these resources are destined for low and middle income countries and include the expenditure allocated to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, treatment and support."

"The Global Fund [to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]’s annual HIV/AIDS disbursement was approximately $1 billion in 2007,39 $1.6 billion in 2008 and $2.8 billion in 2009.40 From 2002 to 2009 the Global Fund has approved a total grant amount of $10 billion for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care. For the 2008 to 2010 biennium, $9.7 billion has been pledged to the Global Fund for all activities by countries and private donors."41

"The total resources made available for HIV/AIDS increased from $7.9 billion in 2005 to $13.8 million in 2008. Nevertheless, there continues to be a resource gap. UNAIDS estimates that overall the funding needed in 2007 was $18 billion,45 indicating that resources need to be increased by about 60%."

"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), pp. 19-21.

34. Estimated Global Spending on AIDS

"UNAIDS estimates that the total global resources needed for HIV/AIDS for the period 2009 to 2013 is almost $200 billion to achieve universal access by 2010, and $140 billion for a slower scale-up to achieve universal access by 2015.83
"The UNAIDS estimates for harm reduction assume 60% coverage for needle and syringe programmes and 40% for opioid substitution therapy.84 These estimates are based on the resources needed for prevention-related activities in order to reach 6.2 million people who inject drugs by 2010 in 132 lower and middle income countries. UNAIDS assumes the cost of opioid substitution therapy using methadone to be between $363 and $1,057 per person per year (which is higher than other estimates in Table 4) and the costs of needle and syringe programmes to be $10 per person per year (lower than other estimates in Table 3).
"Using these figures, UNAIDS estimates that the resources needed for harm reduction are $2.13 billion in 2009 and $3.2 billion in 2010, an average of $170 and $256 respectively per injector per year. Additional resources will be required for antiretroviral treatment, care and support."85

"Three cents a day is not enough: Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a global basis," International Harm Reduction Association (London, United Kingdom: 2010), pp. 38-39.

35. HIV and Injection Drug Use in Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia

"By far the highest prevalence of HIV among PWID [People Who Inject Drugs] is in South-West Asia and in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, with rates that are, respectively, 2.4 and 1.9 times the global average. Together, those two subregions account for 49 per cent of the total number of PWID worldwide living with HIV. Although the prevalence of HIV among PWID in East and South-East Asia is below the global average, 24 per cent of the global total of PWID living with HIV reside in that subregion. An estimated 53 per cent of PWID living with HIV worldwide in 2016 (662,000 people) resided in just three countries (China, Pakistan and the Russian Federation), which is disproportionately large compared with the percentage of the world’s PWID living in those three countries (35 per cent)."

World Drug Report 2018. United Nations publication, Sales No. E.18.XI.9.