Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS

11. HIV Transmission and Injection Drug Use in Russia

"In 2002, an estimated 93 percent of persons registered by the government as HIV positive since the beginning of the epidemic were injection drug users. In contrast, in 2002 an estimated 12 percent of new HIV transmission was sexual -- that figure climbed to 17.5 percent in the first half of 2003 -- indicating the foothold that the epidemic is gaining in the general population. The European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (EuroHIV), a center affiliated with the World Health Organization, noted that HIV prevalence may have 'reached saturation levels in at least some of the currently affected drug user populations' in eastern Europe, including in Russia, but cautioned against complacency 'as new outbreaks could still emerge among injection drug users…, particularly within the vast expanse of the Russian Federation.' Rhodes and colleagues in a February 2004 article echo this conclusion, noting evidence of recent examples of severe HIV outbreaks among drug users in Russia."

Human Rights Watch, "Lessons Not Learned: Human Rights Abuses and HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation," (New York, NY: April 2004) Vol. 16, No. 5, p. 10.
http://www.hrw.org/sites/defau...

12. Annual Rate of HIV Diagnoses in the US

From 2014 through 2018, the annual number and rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and 6 dependent areas decreased (Table 1b). In the United States and 6 dependent areas, the overall rate in 2018 was 11.5; among adults and adolescents, the rate was 13.6 (Figure 1). From 2014 through 2018, by region, the rate of diagnoses of HIV infection in all regions decreased. In 2018, the rates were 15.6 in the South, 9.9 in the Northeast, 9.7 in the West, and 7.2 in the Midwest (Table 1b)."

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2018 (Updated); vol. 31.
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library.... Published May 2020. Accessed June 8, 2020.
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/librar...

13. Number of HIV and AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths in the US

"CDC estimates that more than 1.1 million people in the United States (US) are living with HIV infection. Nearly one in five (18.1%) of those people are unaware of their infection. Despite increases in the total number of people in the US living with HIV infection in recent years (due to better testing and treatment options), the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable. However, new infections continue at far too high a level, with approximately 50,000 Americans becoming infected with HIV each year.
"In 2010, an estimated 47,129 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the 46 states with confidential name-based HIV infection reporting since at least January 2007. In that same year, an estimated 33,015 people throughout the U.S. were diagnosed with AIDS. Since the epidemic began, an estimated 1,129,127 people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with AIDS.
"An estimated 17,774 people with AIDS died in 2009, and nearly 619,400 people with AIDS in the U.S. have died since the epidemic began."

"HIV in the United States: At A Glance," National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (Atlanta, GA: National Centers for Disease Control, March 2012), p. 1.
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resourc...

14. HIV Prevalence Among Youth

"In 2009, youths (defined in this report as persons aged 13–24 years), who represented 21% of the U.S. population, comprised 6.7% of persons living with HIV. More than half (59.5%) were unaware of their infection, the highest for any age group (1)."

Centers for Disease Control, "Vital Signs: HIV Infection, Testing, and Risk Behaviors Among Youths - United States," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 61, No. 47 (Atlanta, GA: CDC, Nov. 30, 2012), p. 971.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/previe...

15. New HIV Infections Among Youths in the US, by Transmission Method

"In 2010, of the estimated 47,500 new HIV infections, 12,200 (25.7%) were among youths (10,100 [82.8%] among males and 2,100 [17.2%] among females). An estimated 7,000 (57.4%) newly infected youths were blacks/African Americans (5,600 males and 1,400 females), 2,390 (19.6%) were Hispanics/Latinos (2,100 males and 290 females), and 2,380 (19.5%) were whites (2,100 males and 280 females) (Figure 2). By transmission category, 72.1% of all new HIV infections among youths were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 19.8% to heterosexual contact,†† 4.0% to injection drug use, and 3.7% to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use. Among females, 85.7% of infections were attributed to heterosexual contact and 12.9% to injection drug use. Among males, 87.1% of infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 6.0% to heterosexual contact, 2.2% to injection drug use, and 4.5% to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use. Of the 8,800 new infections among youths attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 4,800 (54.4%) were among blacks/African Americans, 1,900 (21.6%) among Hispanics/Latinos, and 1,800 (20.5%) among whites."

Centers for Disease Control, "Vital Signs: HIV Infection, Testing, and Risk Behaviors Among Youths - United States," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 61, No. 47 (Atlanta, GA: CDC, Nov. 30, 2012), p. 972.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/previe...

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