Australia

Prevalence of Illegal Pharmaceutical Use in Australia

"• In 2013, 4.7% of Australians aged 14 or older had misused a pharmaceutical in the previous 12 months, which was a significant rise from 4.2% in 2010. This increase was only significant for males (from 4.1% in 2010 to 5.1% in 2013 and from 4.2% to 4.4% for females).
"• The rise in pharmaceutical misuse was mainly due to an increase in males in their 30s (4.5% in 2010 to 6.9% in 2013) and females in their 40s (3.1% in 2010 to 4.5% in 2013) misusing these drugs.

Australian Prisoner Population

(Australian Prisoner Population) "Australia’s prisoner population is growing at a rate well in excess of natural population growth. There were 29 700 adults in full-time custody at 30 June 2010, representing a 15% increase in the incarceration rate from 2000 to 2010. Women comprise 8% of adult prisoners but this proportion is increasing annually. Indigenous Australians2 are over-represented by a factor of 14, and the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous incarceration rates continues to widen.1"

Oxycodone-Related Deaths

(Oxycodone-Related Deaths) "There were 465 oxycodone-related deaths identified between 2001 and 2009. Box 3 shows deaths by year from 2002 to 2008, with the largest number occurring in 2007. Deaths adjusted for quantity of oxycodone prescribed each year fluctuated between 3.8 and 8 deaths per million defined daily doses (Box 3). Only 10% of these deaths were due to oxycodone toxicity alone. Multiple drug toxicity was more predominant (82% of deaths), with benzodiazepines and alcohol commonly implicated in these deaths.

Prevalence of Opioid Analgesics

(Prevalence of Opioid Analgesics) "Morphine prescriptions declined from 38.3 to 30.7 per 1000 population between 2002–03 and 2007–08, representing a decrease of about 20%. Box 1A shows trends in morphine prescriptions by 10-year age group. Prescriptions were most common among older people (aged 70–79 and 80+ years), and much less common among younger people (aged 20–29 and 30–39 years). Significant linear declines over time were apparent in all age groups except the 50–59-year group."

Prevalence of Opioid Analgesics

(Prevalence of Opioid Analgesics) "Australia’s consumption of opioid analgesics is ranked 10th internationally; North America ranks first. Per capita consumption of oxycodone and morphine preparations in Australia is relatively high (ranked third and fifth respectively, internationally); Canada ranks first for oxycodone and Austria first for morphine.1 Consumption levels in Australia are still well below the top-ranking countries.

Access to Needles and Syringes

(Access to Needles and Syringes) "Needle and syringe programs (NSP) were by far the most common source of needles and syringes in the preceding six months (95%), followed by chemists (16%). NSP vending machines were used by 33% of participants in TAS and 29% in NSW. Proportions reporting a friend, partner and/or dealer varied by jurisdiction. Hospitals and outreach/peer workers were also accessed (Table 75).

Australia - Data - 12-13-12

(Methamphetamine Use and Health) "This section compares meth/amphetamines use patterns with general health, selected health conditions, psychological distress (see Glossary for definition of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) and body mass index in people aged 18 years or older. The data are based on self-reported assessments and are not empirically verified. Table 8.7 shows there was a relationship between recent use of meth/amphetamines and a person’s mental health and body mass index. In addition:

Cocaine Use and Health

(Cocaine Use and Health) "In 2010, there appeared to be a relationship between a person’s cocaine use and his or her mental health, psychological distress (see Glossary for definition of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale) and body mass index (Table 9.7). In addition:

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