Mortality Risk From Ibogaine

(Mortality Risk From Ibogaine) "All available autopsy, toxicological, and investigative reports were systematically reviewed for the consecutive series of all known fatalities outside of West Central Africa temporally related to the use of ibogaine from 1990 through 2008. Nineteen individuals (15 men, four women between 24 and 54 years old) are known to have died within 1.5-76 h of taking ibogaine. The clinical and postmortem evidence did not suggest a characteristic syndrome of neurotoxicity.

Ibogaine Subculture Contrasted With Other Drug Subcultures

(Ibogaine Subculture Contrasted With Other Drug Subcultures) "The clinical focus on the treatment of opioid withdrawal distinguishes the ibogaine subculture from subcultures associated with psychedelic or other illegal drugs. The reason for taking ibogaine was more frequently to alleviate the symptoms of opioid withdrawal than to pursue spiritual or psychological goals. In the US, the expansion of the ibogaine subculture coincides temporally with a substantial increase in the public health impact of opioid use disorders (Compton and Volkow, 2006).

Ibogaine's Legal Status

Laws and Policies

(Ibogaine's Legal Status) "Having been discovered by a drug addict, rather than by scientists in a laboratory, ibogaine has been condemned from the very beginning.133 Classified as a Schedule I controlled substance, ibogaine is listed in the same category with the very drugs it counteracts because its hallucinogenic properties arguably outweigh its medicinal value."

Ibogaine and Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

(Ibogaine and Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)) "Ibogaine is a natural alkaloid reported to reverse the adverse actions of multiple drugs of abuse including opiates, psychostimulants, nicotine and alcohol in humans, as well as in rodent models (Popik et al., 1995; Mash et al., 1998; Glick & Maisonneuve, 2000; Alper et al., 2008; Maciulaitis et al., 2008).

Ibogaine Treatment Outside the United States

Ibogaine Treatment Outside the United States: "The medical treatment model presently exists mainly in countries adjacent to the US, such as Mexico, where ibogaine is subsumed within a physician’s legal prerogative to prescribe experimental treatment, or Saint Kitts, where the government includes ibogaine in its national formulary and provides specific approval to the clinic there to administer it. The most common setting is a private clinic with less frequent use of hospitals."

How Ibogaine Works as a Treatment for Addiction or Substance Use Disorder

How Ibogaine Works as a Treatment for Addiction or Substance Use Disorder: "As these researchers point out, and those most familiar with the treatment will testify, ibogaine is not, in general, a 'cure' for drug addiction.122 In the majority of cases, however, it does eliminate or substantially decrease signs and symptoms of withdrawal and the individual typically emerges some 36 hours later without physical dependence on the drug.123 'Ibogaine doesn’t eradicate the underlying causes of addiction, which for many people may take years to unders

History Of Ibogaine As Treatment For Substance Use Disorder In The US

"In 1962, the anti-addictive property of ibogaine was inadvertently discovered by 19-year-old heroin addict Howard Lotsof.58 Lotsof was part of an experimental group of mostly 20-something Caucasians attending college.59 The group, which included seven heroin addicts, shared a common interest in experimenting and subjectively evaluating their experiences with various psychoactive drugs, including Mescaline, LSD, DMT, and psilocybin,60 in an effort to determine the psychotherapeutic value of hallucinogenic drugs.61 As psychedelic drugs were not ill

Physical and Psychological Effects of Ibogaine in the Context of Addiction (Substance Use Disorder) Treatment

"Within three hours after ingesting a higher dose of ibogaine, the user will enter into the 'acute phase,' typically lasting four to eight hours.42 It is during this phase that the user experiences ibogaine’s most intense effects, characterized as the 'panoramic recall of a large amount of material relating to prior life events from long-term memory, primarily in the visual modality,' or the 'waking dream' state.43 If the user is an addict, he or she will usually be taken back to the place and time where the underlying issue leading t