"The joint UNODC/WHO/UNAIDS/World Bank estimate for the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) for 2014 is 11.7 million (range: from 8.4 to 19.0 million), or 0.25 per cent (range: 0.18-0.40 per cent) of the population aged 15-64.
"By contrast, in the European Union much of the corruption reported appears to be on a low level, according to research by Europol.80 Political corruption at the level of elected national representatives or agency heads appears to be rare.
"The Cosa Nostra and ‘Ndrangheta have long benefited from high-level political connections in Italy.77 In a similar way, some Mexican drug cartels allegedly benefited from protection from local police and local politicians.78 In Guinea Bissau, international drug traffickers counted on the support of
influential segments within the political and military apparatus for a number of years.79
"The drug problem and corruption have a mutually reinforcing relationship. Corruption facilitates the production and trafficking of illegal drugs and this, in turn, benefits corruption.76 The wealth and power of some drug trafficking organizations can exceed that of local governments, allowing them to buy protection from law enforcement agents, criminal justice institutions, politicians and the business sector. In doing so, they further reinforce corruption. The rule of law is both an immediate victim and, if it is already weak, an underlying factor that feeds this cycle."
"The joint UNODC/World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/World Bank estimate for the number of people worldwide who injected drugs in 2015 is 11.8 million (range: 8.6 to 17.4 million), corresponding to 0.25 per cent (range: 0.18 to 0.36 per cent) of the population aged 15-64 years. This estimate is based on the reporting of injecting drug use from 107 countries, covering 89 per cent of the global population aged 15-64 years.
"In the operating guidelines on the early warning system, EMCDDA [European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction] made it explicit that 'the term ‘new’ did not refer to newly invented, but rather ‘newly misused’' substances as 'most of the drugs in question were first created many years ago.'20 In fact, investigations into the potential use of piperazines as anthelmintic have been reported in scientific literature since the early 1950s.21 Yet they only started to emerge as a health problem in several countries in the decade 2001-2010.
Worldwide Coca Cultivation As Estimated by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime: Although global coca bush cultivation in 2014 increased by 10 per cent compared with the previous year, the total area under coca bush cultivation worldwide, 132,300 ha, was the second smallest since the late 1980s. Global coca bush cultivation in 2014 was 19 per cent lower than in 2009, 40 per cent lower than the peak level in 2000 and 31 per cent lower than in 1998.
"Of the 6,380 tons of opium produced worldwide in 2016, it is estimated that some 2,100 tons remained unprocessed for consumption as opium, while the rest was processed into heroin, resulting in an estimate of some 448 tons of heroin manufactured worldwide (expressed at export purity).
"The system of penalties for juveniles facing criminal charges in Russia is based on suspended sentences or detention in educational correctional facilities, which house young offenders aged up to 21 years. The average sentence is four years. Only one quarter of adult recidivists considered a high-risk to society are said to have been admitted to a VK [educational correctional facilities] as juveniles."
"The growing number of young people abusing drugs is a serious concern. Worryingly, the overwhelming majority of drug addicts are between 18 – 30 years old. Many of them are unemployed, have a chronic history of offending and commit a large number of crimes to finance their addiction.