"Of the 1,000,453 opioid recipients (81.7%) with at least 6 months of follow-up, 51.1% were female, and the median age was 17 years (interquartile range, 16-18 years). Among these adolescents, the estimated cumulative incidence of LTOT [Long Term Opioid Therapy] after first opioid receipt was 1.1 (95% CI, 1.1-1.2) per 1000 recipients within 1 year, 3.0 (95% CI, 2.8-3.1) per 1000 recipients within 3 years, 8.2 (95% CI, 7.8-8.6) per 1000 recipients within 6 years, and 16.1 (95% CI, 14.2-18.0) per 1000 recipients within 10 years.
"In this nationwide study of commercially insured adolescents, LTOT [Long Term Opioid Therapy] was relatively uncommon. The estimated incidence of LTOT receipt was 3.0 per 1000 adolescents within 3 years of filling an initial opioid prescription. Although adolescents with a wide range of preexisting mental health conditions and treatments were modestly more likely than adolescents without those conditions or treatments to receive an initial opioid, the former had substantially higher rates of subsequent transitioning to LTOT.
"Among 12th graders, the highest noncontinuation rate is observed for inhalants (67%), followed by heroin (56%). Many inhalants are used primarily at a younger age, and use is often not continued into 12th grade. The rank ordering for noncontinuation of other drugs is as follows: MDMA (ecstasy), methamphetamine, crack, sedatives (barbiturates), crystal methamphetamine (ice), narcotics other than heroin, LSD, cocaine, cocaine other than crack, and steroids (all between 37% and 45%); and tranquilizers, hallucinogens, and amphetamines (all between 33% and 36%).
"On average, 7% of the ESPAD students stated that they had used marijuana or hashish during the past 30 days. As a proportion of the group reporting lifetime use, this corresponds to roughly four in ten. The highest rates of past-30-days cannabis use are found in the two neighbouring countries of France and Monaco (24% and 21%, respectively), followed by the United States (not an ESPAD country) (18 %) and the Czech Republic and Spain (not an ESPAD country) (15% each).
"Nationwide, 38.6% of students had used marijuana one or more times during their life (i.e., ever used marijuana) (Table 53). The prevalence of having ever used marijuana was higher among black male (49.7%) than black female (40.5%) students. The prevalence of having ever used marijuana was higher among black (45.5%) and Hispanic (45.6%) than white (35.2%) students, higher among black female (40.5%) and Hispanic female (45.3%) than white female (34.3%) students, and higher among black male (49.7%) and Hispanic male (46.0%) than white male (36.2%) students.
Estimated Past Year Prevalence of Cocaine and Crack Use Among Young People in the US: "Past-year cocaine use in 2015 among 12th graders has been essentially the same across regions and varied between 1.8% and 2.3%, with the exception that the West stood out and climbed to 4.4% in 2015 (Figure 5-10b; also Tables 36-38 and Figure 81 in Occasional Paper 86). In past years regional variation in cocaine use was the largest observed for any of the drugs.