HIV

State Policies Regarding Disease Prevention and Syringe Service Programs

"Eighteen states had laws that were categorized as least comprehensive related to the prevention of HCV transmission among persons who inject drugs. In particular, these 18 states had no laws authorizing a syringe exchange program, decriminalizing possession and distribution of syringes and needles, or allowing the retail sale of syringes without a prescription.

Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia

Prevalence of HIV Among Injection Drug Users in Australia: "The prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs in Australia has remained low at 2.1% or less since 1995. The prevalence of HIV in 2011 was 1.2% (Figure 46). HCV prevalence among this group was much higher at 61% to 62% from 2005 to 2008, however this figure was lower at 53% 2011 (Figure 46) (Iversen and Maher, 2012)."

Persons in the US and 6 Dependent Areas Living with HIV, by Race/Ethnicity

According to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), at year-end 2014 there were an estimated total of 972,813 persons living with an HIV diagnosis in the US states and 6 dependent territories. Of these, 2,909 were American Indian/Alaska Native, 12,370 were Asian, 405,644 were Black/African-American, 215,721 were Hispanic/Latino, 881 were Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, 300,231 were White, and 35,057 were multiple races.

Persons In The US Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection Ever Classified as Stage 3 (AIDS), by Transmission Method

"From 2010 through 2014, the number and rate of persons living with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS) increased (Table 19a). At year-end 2014, 521,002 persons in the United States were living with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS). The prevalence rate of infections classified as stage 3 (AIDS) was 163.4."

Persons Living with HIV Infection Ever Classified As Stage 3 (AIDS) In The US, by Race and Ethnicity

"From 2010 through 2014, the number and rate of persons living with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS) increased (Table 19a). At year-end 2014, 521,002 persons in the United States were living with infection ever classified as stage 3 (AIDS). The prevalence rate of infections classified as stage 3 (AIDS) was 163.4.

Methadone Treatment Associated with Reductions in Frequency of Opioid Use, Fewer Injections, and Lower Rates of HIV

"In summary, data from studies conducted in Australia, Europe, Asia and the United States have, with few exceptions, found strong associations between participation in methadone treatment and reductions in the frequency of opioid use, fewer injections and injection-related HIV risk behaviors, and lower rates of HIV prevalence and incidence. Few randomized controlled trials have been conducted due to ethical concerns regarding the random assignment of individuals to no treatment or other potentially less effective treatment modalities.